This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
There are different methods of connecting up the fixtures in a bath room, depending upon the general arrangement, type, the kind of trap used, etc. Fig. 75 shows a set of fixtures connected up with vented traps. Both the soil and vent pipes are carried above the roof with open ends. No trap or fixture should be vented into a chimney, as is quite commonly done; this may work satisfactorily when the flues are warm, but in summer time, when the fires are out, there are quite likely to be down drafts, which cause the gases to be carried into the rooms through stoves or fireplaces. The vent pipe, although usually carried through the roof independently, is sometimes connected with the soil pipe above the highest fixture; the soil pipe is often made a larger size through the attic space and above the roof in order to increase the upward flow of air through it. Fig. 76 shows a set of bath room connections in which non-siphoning traps are used without back venting; this is a simpler and less expensive method of making the connections and is especially recommended by some engineers. Its efficiency of course depends upon the proper working of the traps.
The bath room itself should be well lighted, and if possible, in a location where it will receive the sun. It should be arranged so that it may be heated to a higher temperature than other rooms in the house if desired, and it should also be thoroughly ventilated, the vent register being placed 5 or 6 feet above the floor in order that it may carry off any steam which rises from the bath tub. The walls, doors, etc., should be finished in a way to make them as nearly waterproof as possible; some form of good enamel paint answers well for this purpose. Paper should never be used on the walls, nor carpets on the floors, which should be of hard wood. Where the expense is not a matter of importance, glazed tile may be used for the floor and walls. Meanshould always be provided for ventilating the bathroom without opening the door into the other rooms, and the greatest care should be taken to keep not only the fixtures, but the room itself, in the most perfect order.
REPRESENTATIVE MODERN BATH ROOM AND LAVATORY FITTINGS.
The common form of urinal connection is shown in Fig. 14. The overflow from the trap ends in a tee, the lower outlet of which connects with the soil pipe and the upper with the vent pipe. Where several urinals are erected side by side it is usual to omit the individual traps, using the direct outlet connection shown in Fig. 77. These connect with a common waste pipe and drain through a single trap to the soil pipe.
Fig. 78 shows the usual method of making the connections for a kitchen sink. The waste and vent are of lead, connected with the main cast-iron soil and vent pipes by means of brass ferules and wiped joints.