The plumbing fixtures of an office building need not differ to a great extent from house linings, and the same principles of construction will apply. The fixtures will consist mainly of bowls or sinks and water closets and urinals. All fittings should be strong and of simple construction, easily accessible for repairs or cleaning. The use of wood for partitions or floors should be avoided when possible, marble slabs and marble, mosaic, or tile floors being preferable. Water closets should be placed in well ventilated ranges, with partitions of marble, and slatted doors kept up a foot from the floor. All hinges, fastenings, and metal fixtures should be of nickel-plated brass. Urinals of the ventilated hood pattern are to be preferred and these should have a dished floor slab of ample dimension.

Inside Finish

While wood is used to a large extent for the inside finish of fireproof buildings, the use of incombustible material is increasing. The forms of metal sash construction which we have described for outside windows may all be adapted to interior uses, and, with metal doors and frames, and marble or mosaic floors, each office may be made practically fireproof in itself. Doors with sheet metal covering are often used, and these may be set in cast-iron frames made with rebates or channels to receive the plaster or block partitions. (Fig. 249.) The doors are sometimes made of hollow metal, but more often of a pine core completely encased in sheet metal. (Fig. 250.)

Fig. 349. Cast iron Door Jamb.

Fig. 349. Cast-iron Door Jamb.

Fig. 250. Sheet Metal Door and Finish.

Fig. 250. Sheet Metal Door and Finish.


With the hanging of the doors and the setting of the hardware, the mechanical processes will be completed, and the building will be turned over to the painters for finishing.

Here the methods and materials will differ little from ordinary painter's work, and mainly in the lesser amount of woodwork and the greater amount of finished metal and plaster work to be treated.

All iron or steel work which is to be painted must be perfectly clean and free from rust or moisture. Rust spots may be removed by scraping or burning, and fine ornamental work should be thoroughly cleaned, and the paint carefully applied in thin coats so as not to obscure the pattern.

Plaster which is to be painted must be free from flaws or cracks, and both the plaster and the wall behind it must be thoroughly dry. Plastered walls should be brushed over just before painting, and the surface sized or primed.


With the departure of the painters, it will remain" only to see that the building is thoroughly cleaned from top to bottom, and all paint spots removed from glass, marble, and all other exposed material.

The. superintendent should carefully review all notes and memoranda made during the progress of the work, and be prepared to furnish a complete and detailed account of proceedings, including a record of all orders received and given, materials rejected, and the defects which warranted their rejection.

A diary should be kept, recording the state of the weather, the number of men of the different trades employed, the progress from day to day, a record of accidents, and any other data which would be likely to prove of value or interest. A record of this sort will not only be of possible value to the owner, but will contain data which may be of great value to the superintendent as a guide for future operations.

HOUSE AT BROOKDALE, WIS. Fernekes & Cramer, Architects

HOUSE AT BROOKDALE, WIS. Fernekes & Cramer, Architects