This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
The Lips And Mouth. The mental temperament indicated by the outline of the mouth and by the elevation and expansion of the corner of the lips in particular, can be very much improved by careful penciling. Mouths which have the corners drawn down give a sort of severe expression; those curved upward are naturally the reverse. There are three distinct shadows on the lips, and each must be preserved in its respective place. No matter from what direction the light comes you will find that the lower lip will have the strongest shadows appear more on the shadow side. The upper lip will throw a shadow on the lower one and this shadow will be darker than either lip, so you must preserve the respective values.
262. The form of the mouth can be materially improved by clearly defining the proportions. Should there exist any cracks in the lips they should be removed entirely. In aged persons the lines of the mouth become lost in the wrinkles at the corners. These wrinkles may be modified. Many times, in order to hold a natural expression of the mouth, the photographer finds it necessary to allow the mouth to be opened, slightly exposing the teeth. The teeth may be removed from the negative when desirable, by etching and scraping away with the etching knife; instruction for which is given in a more advanced chapter.
263. The mouth in elderly persons is apt to show wrinkles and depressions. These may be modified, but never should be removed. The modifications can be made quite strong in the lower lip. To allow the corners to droop
would indicate sorrow or ill-temper, so the more you modify them the more pleasing will be the expression; but be always careful to retain the wrinkles.
The Chin. Where the chin is small it is well to broaden it slightly by strengthening the lights, building them up a trifle stronger and broader, thus producing a more vigorous personality in the face. In fact, this will add very materially to the general balance in modeling the head without changing the likeness.
Double Chins. The double chin applies mostly to aged and fleshy subjects, who are generally provided with an excess of flesh extending from the chin to the neck, and in many persons covering a large portion of the throat. This gives a very displeasing effect. It is not as easy to make alterations in a front view as in a side or profile; however, you can unite the chin with the throat by working away the folds of flesh with the pencil or knife, or by use of both. In profile views you can cut away parts that are objectionable and give a very nicely shaped chin.
266. In all well-shaped chins there should be an inward curve above the chin. Should the chin be curved unnaturally, it should be filled in, and if the curve is irregular it must be gradually blended. This is accomplished by penciling and curving the chin inward, working mid-way between the tip of the chin and the lip; then, beginning close to the lip and penciling sufficiently to connect and continue this curve from the lip to the chin.
267. In front views, where the chin is almost straight and contains no curve, you should work differently. By placing a slight shadow underneath the lip you can produce this curve. The shadow is made by very carefully scraping the film with the etching knife. This is fully explained in the chapter on Etching.
The Dimple. If there is a very deep dimple in the chin it should be modified by filling in with lead, but must not be entirely eliminated. Should you completely remove it, the chin would be broadened, giving it a flat appearance.
Character Pointers - Lips and Chin.
269. A well developed chin is a sign of love.
270. A square chin is the sign of honesty.
271. The thinner the lips the less affection.
272. The firmly held lips which do not protrude or point outward show that the individual has control of his appetite.
273. Coarse thick lips and a thick chin are indicative of strong appetite.
274. A strong square chin is indicative of a strong heart.
275. Signs of selfishness are expressed in the following:
276. A closely shut mouth, yet thick lips, which do not show the red part to any extent.
277. The projection of the muscle under the lower lip, causing it to look sullen and jealous.
278. A large thick chin, especially one that is thick downward from the corners of the mouth.
279. A heavy coarse lower jaw.
280. A large neck.