499. The eye is the most delicate feature of the face to work upon, for unless this feature is carefully treated there is every chance for loss of likeness. Improperly handled, this feature also changes the entire expression of the face. When pictures from a particular negative are desired in which both eyes are closed, it would be advisable to obtain another negative of the subject, making the face the exact size of the negative in which the eyes are to be opened. If it be impossible to secure the original subject, and it is important that you produce prints from this negative, you might make a negative from another member of the family whose eyes are, as nearly as possible, like those of your subject. Failing this, you may obtain another photograph with eyes the exact shape, and then follow the lines of these eyes on the negative obtained as your design. Of course, all this requires considerable work and would be quite costly to the purchaser. It is understood that this would be a rare case and only employed where a satisfactory likeness is required which cannot be supplied in any other way, and the pictures are desired made regardless of expense. Under such conditions the work can be done, and hence the object of this instruction.

500. It is seldom that we have subjects requiring the altering of both eyes to any great extent, and only in rare cases do we meet with the necessity of supplying a pair of eyes. This necessity might occur only when a flashlight picture was made and the eyes closed during exposure.

With this as the only negative of the subject, the best result possible must be obtained. Or, again, we may have old copies to reproduce in which the eyes are practically faded away and must be replaced. The most numerous cases are those where the subject has lost one eye, or where one eye has a bad defect, or subjects with glass eyes which do not match in the photograph and must be corrected.

501. There are also cases in ordinary portraiture where both eyes may have been closed during a part of the exposure, or the subject may have winked considerably during the exposure, thus producing the effect of a blur or veil over the eyeball. Any of the above, and many other corrections, can be made by means of the etching knife and pencil, but one must work very carefully and intelligently. By following the general instruction for this work given in this volume, and studying carefully the various illustrations showing the different stages of the work, you will have no difficulty in accomplishing good results.

502. In talking of the eye, it may be well to state that the eye is built up of the iris, the pupil and the white. The iris is the colored part surrounding the pupil, which is the black center of the eye. The catch-light on the eye is the little white spot or high-light on the iris.

503. It is advisable, when you have a negative of importance that requires special work on the eyes, first to take a discarded plate, or perhaps two or three of them, and practice on them until you feel you possess the ability to work on a more valuable one. Where only one eye is defective, or is closed, an outline of the other eye or eyelid should be drawn or sketched on transparent tissue-paper. This you do by placing the negative in the retouching easel, glass side toward you, and then laying the tissue-paper on the glass side of the negative and viewing it by transmitted light. Next, with the pencil, draw the outline of the perfect eye on the tissue-paper. Now invert the drawing, placing the pencil side next to the glass, and adjust it gradually over the defective eye. The tissue may be fastened to the glass and held in place with a little paste attached to the

outer edge. Now invert the negative with the outline tissue on the under side, so that you may work on the film side of the plate.

504. By using the transparent paper for your outline in drawing the eye you are not so apt to ruin the negative, as you would be if working without any guide. The size and shape should be accurate in every respect. With the etching knife well sharpened, the outline of the eye and iris may now be etched on the film. The point only of the etcher should be used for outlining, and care must be exercised when working with it that you do not cut through the film to the glass. The etching knife should be sharp enough to make each stroke with the knife barely discernible, yet gradually shaving down the outline until it grows sufficiently transparent.

505. When tracing the outline on the film, bear in mind that you are viewing the pencil drawing through the thickness of the glass on your negative; therefore, you must view the outline directly over the negative while tracing the outline on the film. To view the work from one side will displace the image and may cause you to lose the shape of the eye and iris, or colored part of the eye. After the outline has been etched upon the negative, the tissue pattern may be removed. It may be preserved, however, for future reference, if desired. Remember that where you have black pencil lines on the paper, you will require transparent lines on the negative.

506. To illustrate the opening or altering of eyes, we have selected the most difficult subject possible, and illustrate herein a case where both eyes are closed. In Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 of Illustration No. 33, we present a series of pictures showing the different stages of the work, illustrating the method of procedure for correcting or opening closed or defective eyes. In Fig. 6 is presented a picture of the same subject with the eyes opened. The outline for the eye to be added was obtained by tracing on transparent tissue paper the normal eye from the plate used in Fig. 6, the tracing being done from the glass side of the plate.

When completed, this tracing was adjusted at the back of the eye of the negative to be worked, and attached on the edges of the glass with a little ordinary paste.

507. With this accomplished, the negative is placed in the retouching desk, film side toward you, and then, with the etching knife perfectly sharp, the eyelid and iris of the eye are outlined. This is done with the point of the etcher, scraping in a gradually curved line, first, the shadow or edge of the eyelid, next the fold of the upper eyelid, and finally the outline of the iris and the eye itself. This completes the first stage, as shown in Fig. 2.

508. For the second stage we proceed to the etching and building of the pupil. In building the iris or colored part of the eye, we begin shaving the film, following the curve of the outline of the iris, gradually shaving the film in all parts except a small speck in the upper corner, which is preserved for the catch-light or small white spot on the eye. All this work is done with the curved side of the blade. To work conveniently and follow the curve of the pupil more easily, the negative is turned at different angles to permit of shaving in the one direction at all times. Continue turning the plate until you have worked all around the inside of the pupil, with the exception of a tiny spot which is to be retained as a catch-light. In working or shaving the film on the iris, do not attempt to work to the full depth the first time around, but shave lightly at first and then go over the space a second time.

509. The catch-light must be located on the side of the eye nearest the light and must not be connected with the eyelid, nor should it extend too far into the pupil, which is the small black spot in the center of the eye. Neither must it blend into the whites of the eye, but must be located in the upper corner of the iris toward the source of light. If the catch-light is placed against the eyelid the roundness of the eyeball will be lost and the result be a perfectly flat surface.

510. Etch the pupil (which is the central round part of the eye) until it is sufficiently transparent to print quite

Illustration No. 33. Opening Closed Eyes

Illustration No. 33. Opening Closed Eyes.

See Paragraph 506.

Illustration No. 34 Straightening Crossed Eyes See Paragraph 515

Illustration No. 34 Straightening Crossed Eyes See Paragraph 515.

dark, but do not etch down to the glass, as this would give a black, lifeless spot, which would by no means represent a a natural appearance. (See Fig. 3.) It is advisable to make frequent proof-prints between each stage of the work, that you may have a positive guide to work by.

511. Proceeding to the fourth stage, we will complete the pupil, or black spot, of the eye. This is done with the curved blade of the etcher, shaving the film quite close below the catch-light in the eye, but located in the center of the iris. The pupil should be made perfectly round and the film scraped about two tones lower than the iris. If any difficulty is experienced in obtaining the roundness, the point of the etcher may be employed and the negative turned at an angle while working, thus enabling you to work always one way. Instead of turning the blade of the etcher to follow a curve you merely turn the plate around until the entire circuit is made. With this done we have completed the fourth stage of the work, and will next proceed to the fifth or final stage.

512. Beginning this stage we proceed first to reduce the high-light on the eyelid, subduing it to the tone of the surrounding flesh. This we do with the etching paste, rubbing the space gently with the end of the finger, which has previously been charged with the paste. Before applying it to the eyelid, first rub the finger charged with the paste over the film of some discarded negative. This is done to remove all excess paste and harshness, and what paste remains on the finger will be sufficient to do all the reducing that is necessary. Now apply the finger to the eyelid, cautiously rubbing it lengthways and with the curves of the lines until the surface is sufficiently reduced. Do not be alarmed if you should, by chance, extend the reduction beyond the eyelid, as this will do no harm, for you will have an opportunity afterward of building up any such portions with the pencil. In fact, in this case in particular, it is rather desirable to spread the reducing a trifle, as this has a tendency to blend the etching and the outlining previously accomplished, thus adding softness.

513. With this completed, the next stage is to build up the dense shadows surrounding the eyeball, softening the outline, etc. This part of the work is best done with an HH lead and is very important. The lead must be applied carefully, to give softness and mellowness to the eye. The shadow line should, of course, be in deeper shadow nearest the nose than on the other end of the eye, as the part of the eye next to the nose is set a trifle deeper in the head. In consequence, there is less light reaching this portion than the part nearest the source of light. With the lower line softened and nicely blended, we next proceed to softening the line created by the fold of the upper eye-lid. Following the curve of the line, we gradually subdue its harshness and wherever rough edges appear they are blended into the general curve. With this accomplished we then conclude the work by cleaning up the eye, as it were, working over the white portions, removing any blemishes that may exist, and toning the white of the eye gradually toward the ends. Finally, spread the catch-light slightly, subduing this speck a trifle. With this done, the eye is completed and compares very favorably with Fig. 6, the natural eye.