For the protection of the public or for purposes of taxation, or for both reasons, many statutes are enacted forbidding certain contracts and sales either altogether or unless certain statutory regulations are complied with. There can be no doubt that if a statute directly prohibits a contract or sale it cannot be enforced by the parties to it, and the imposition of a penalty is at least prima facie an implied prohibition of the transaction to which the penalty attaches;69 but though no pen-

65 See supra, { 1630.

66 For instance, a promise to make an illegal sale in return for a legal consideration of money paid in advance.

67 For example, a promise to pay the price for goods illegally sold.

68 Singer Mfg. Co. v. Draper, 103

Tenn. 262, 52 S. W. 879; Standard alty is imposed, the transaction may nevertheless be invalidated.70

- Furniture Co. v„ Van Alstine, 22 Wash.

670, 62 Pac. 145, 51 L. R. A. 880, 79

Am. St. Rep. 960.

69 Clark v. Protection Ins. Co., 1 Story, 109, 122; Swann v. Swann, 21 299; Woods v. Armstrong, 54 Ala. 150, 25 Am. Rep. 671; Harrison v. Jones, 80 Ala. 412; Campbell v. Segars, 81 Ala. 259, 1 So. 714; Youngblood v. Birmingham Trust Co., 95 Ala. 521, 12 So. 579,20 L. R. A. 58,36 Am. St. Rep. 245; Funk v. Gallivan, 49 Conn. 124, 44 Am. Rep. 210; Moorehouse v. Kukalman, 177 Ind. 471, 96 N. E. 600; Dillon v. Allen, 46 Iowa, 299, 26 Am.