The difficulty of procedure in actions by or against the members of an unincorporated association where the members are numerous, has led to the enactment in England, and some of the United States, of statutes authorizing suits in the name of the association.56 Apart from such statutes, the rules of procedure requiring all who are jointly entitled to sue, or jointly liable to be joined as defendants are applicable.57

53 Flemyng v. Hector, 2 M.& W. 172; Cockerell v. Ancorapte, 2 C. B. (N. S.) 440; Davison v. Holden, 55 Conn, 103, 10 Atl. 515, 3 Am. St. Rep. 40; Lewis v. Tilton, 64 Ia. 220, 19 N. W. 911, 52 Am. Rep. 436; Reding v. Anderson, 72 Ia. 403, 34 N. W. 300; Newell v. Borden, 128 Mass. 31; Volger v. Ray, 131 Mass. 439; Ray a. Powers, 134 Mass. 22; Clark v. O'Rourke, 111 Mich. 108, 69 N. W. 147, 66 Am. St. Rep. 389; Jenkinson v. Wysner, 125 Mich. 89, 83 N. W. 1012; Detroit Life Guard Band v. First Michigan Infantry, 134 Mich. 598, 96 N. W. 934; Heath v. Goslin, 80 Mo. 310, 50 Am. Rep. 505; McCabe v. Goodfellow, 133 N. Y. 89, 30 N. E. 728, 17 L. R. A. 204; Light-bourn v. Walsh, 97 App. Div. 187, 89 N. Y. S. 856; Hosman v. Kinneally, 43 N. Y. Misc. 76, 86 N. Y. 8. 263; Devote v. Gray, 22 Ohio St. 159, 45 N. Y. Misc. 411, 90 N. Y. S. 357; Ash v. Guie, 97 Pa. 493, 39 Am. Rep. 818; Winona Lumber Co. v. Church, 6 S. Dak. 498, 62 N. W. 107; Fredendall v. Taylor, 23 Wis. 538, 99 Am. Dec. 203. In the case of McCabe v. Goodfellow, and Hosman v. Kin-neally, supra, the court found the authority of the managers was confined to expenditures to the extent of a contributed fund, and that there was no power to bind individual members beyond that, even for contracts of a kind contemplated in the purposes of the association, but in the latter case property turned over to the members of the association had been increased in value by the discharge of liens. These liens had been paid from the fund contributed for carrying on business, and a third person who had contracted with the managers of the association was held entitled to enforce his claim against such property of the association to the extent of the funds used to discharge the liens.

54 See infra, Sec. 322.

55 Willcox v. Arnold, 162 Mass. 577, 39 N. E. 414. In this case all the members of a college class but one voted to publish a class book. It was held that all but the non-assenting member were liable for the expenses of publication.

It is sometimes difficult to tell in case of written contracts whether the intent was to bind personally an agent or officer of an unincorporated society, or to bind the society itself; that is, all its members. There is no distinction in principle, however, between such a case where the principal is an incorporated society, from cases where the principal is an individual or corporation.58 It is to be observed, however, that where the principal is an unincorporated association, and the agent is a member of it, the agent becomes liable personally, whether he enters into obligations on behalf of the association or on his own behalf. If he contracted on behalf of the association he is entitled by plea in abatement to demand that the other members be joined as defendants, but he cannot himself escape liability.59

Sec. 310. Executors and administrators are liable personally on their contracts. For debts and obligations of a deceased person his executor or administrator is not personally responsible. The right of the creditor is limited by the assets of the estate. The executor or administrator in theory continues the person of the deceased for the purpose of being sued as well as of bringing action, but such judgments as are rendered against the personal representative for debts of the deceased, can be satisfied only out of the property of the latter.60 Any contract made after estate, assets which equitably belong to another, the obligation to restore them to the true owner runs against the executor or administrator in his official capacity as continuing in law the person of the deceased, and judgment will be given against the goods of the estate.66 And similarly if a payment is made on behalf of the estate or a benefit conferred upon it by a third person under such circumstances that had a similar payment or benefit been rendered to a living person, a quasi-contractual right against him would have existed, such a quasi-contractual right also arises against the executor or administrator of the estate in question, in his official capacity and judgment will go against the goods of the deceased.67 As the contracts of an executor or administrator bind him personally, if on his death an administrator de bonis rum is appointed, the latter is not liable even upon contracts rightfully made by his predecessor in office.68

56See Tuff Vale Ry. Co. v. Amalgamated Society, [1901] A. C. 426; Davison v. Holden, 55 Conn. 103, 10 Atl. 515, 3 Am. St. Rep. 40; Detroit Life Guard Band v. First Michigan Infantry, 134 Mich. 598, 96 N. W. 934; St. Paul Typothetss v. St. Paul Book Binders' Union, 94 Minn. 351, 102 N. W. 725; Curran v. Galen, 152 N. Y. 33, 46 N. E. 297, 37 L. R. A. 802, 57 Am. St. Rep. 496; Wunch v. Shank-land, 59 N. Y. App. D. 482,69 N. Y. S. 349.

57 Karges Furniture Co. v. Amalgamated Woodworkers, 165 Ind. 421, 75 N. E. 877, 2 L. R. A. (N. S.) 788.

58As to contractu of this sort, see aupra, Sec.281. See also Thompson v. Garrison, 22 Kans. 765, where an invitation by the elders of a church in behalf of the congregation was held to bind the signers.

59 Thompson v. Garrison, 22 Kans. 765; Detroit Life Guard Band v. First Michigan Infantry, 134 Mich. 598, 96 N. W. 934.

60See Williams on Executors (7th Am. ed.), 1593 et seq. As to what the testator's death by an executor or administrator is necessarily his personal contract, as the common law does not recognize the estate of a deceased person as an entity.61 This is true even though the contract is a proper one, and perhaps directed by the testator's will. Thus if an executor is authorized by will or otherwise to carry on the testator's business, he becomes personally liable for the debts so incurred.62 So contracts for funeral expenses;63 or other contracts properly entered into for the administration of the estate,64 as where an executor employs counsel in matters relating to the estate, bind the executor personally .65 But it is otherwise of quasi-contractual obligations. If an executor or administrator receives, as part of the testator's contracts of a deceased person cease to be obligatory upon his estate see infra, Sec. 1940. A contract to pay money after one's own death is valid. Char-ran v. Day, 228 Mass. 305, 117 N. E. 347.