This section is from the book "The Law Of Contracts", by William Herbert Page. Also available from Amazon: Commercial Contracts: A Practical Guide to Deals, Contracts, Agreements and Promises.
Sec. 2020. Nature of construction.
Sec. 2021. Object of construction.
Sec. 2022. Construction as fact or law.
Sec. 2023. Intention deduced primarily from words employed.
Sec. 2024. Ordinary meaning of word prima facie correct.
Sec. 2026. General and specific words - Noscitur a sociis.
Sec. 2027. Technical meaning.
Sec. 2028. Meaning of word controlled by usage.
Sec. 2029. Cipher.
Sec. 2030. Abbreviations.
Sec. 2031. Grammatical accuracy and punctuation.
Sec. 2032. Omissions, errors and surplusage.
Sec. 2034. Practical construction by parties.
Sec. 2036. Actual intention as affecting construction.
Sec. 2037. Priority of clauses.
Sec. 2038. Contract construed as a whole.
Sec. 2039. General paramount intent controls special intent.
Sec. 2041. Headings and marginal annotations as part of contract.
Sec. 2043. Written and printed provisions.
Sec. 2044. Incorporation of writing by reference.
Sec. 2045. Reference for specific purpose.
Sec. 2046. Different writings construed together.
Sec. 2047. Extrinsic matters as terms of contract.
Sec. 2048. Law as term of contract.
Sec. 2049. Nature of law as affecting contract.
Sec. 2052. Construction to protect public interest.
Sec. 2053. Contract construed to be fair and reasonable.
Sec. 2054. The rule contra proferentem.
Sec. 2055. Rules and by-laws.
Sec. 2056. Usages and customs as terms of contract.
Sec. 2059. Usage or custom contrary to legal effect of contract.
Sec. 2060. Surrounding circumstances.