Last month the different stages of "Forwarding" were dealt with as far as the pasting in of the end papers. Now the student must proceed to glue the back of the book. The glue in the rough must be broken up and left to soak for several hours in just sufficient.water to cover it, and then placed over a stove till thoroughly melted. This must be strained and left to set. Chunks can then be cut off and melted in the glue-pot as required.

A rough board is placed on either side of the book outside the slips, and the whole is then nipped in a lying-press by the tore-edges to steady it. The glue-brush must be gripped rather low down, and evenly but sparely soaked in the glue, and should be dabbed down on to the book fairly firrmly, so as to get the glue well in between the sections. Then the book is removed at once from the press, the boards are taken off and the back is banged flat on a waste piece of paper, which will come off without sticking provided it has not been left too long. It should then be left till the glue has just set but not hardened, since if it gets too dry, or is put on too thick, it will crack and tear the paper when it is being backed.

Fig. 12.   Rounded back.

Fig. 12. - Rounded back.

The next process is to round the back. Place the book flat with the fore-edges towards you, the left hand resting on the top and the thumb in the fore-edges. Then hammer gently along the side of the back which is uppermost, till the fore-edges curl over the thumb. Turn the book over and repeat the pro-till the back shows an even curve (Fig. 12).

Fig. 13.   Backing board in position.

Fig. 13. - Backing board in position.

Now place the backing-board on each side of the book, a little way in from the back of the outside sections {Fig. 13). The distance should be a shade less than the thickness of the mill-board that is to be used for the cover. Leave the slips outside, then slide the book easily into the lying-press, making the outside corners of the backing boards just level with the top of the press (Fig. 14). If the boards show a tendency to slip, the side that lies next to the book may be very slightly damped. Screw this up firmly, pull the slips out flat at the sides, and begin to hammer. Hammer from the middle of tie back out towards the edge, all down first one side and then the other, using the thin edge of the hammer and holding it at the angle shown in the illustration (Fig. 15). The idea is to turn the sections over In the backing boards, so that when they are removed there will be a groove left for the millboard to fit into. Care must be taken that the sections of one side are not hammered over to the other, as this will give a lop-sided appearance. See that the end sections are lying flat, and then hammer till the back presents a smooth firm surface. The correct shape is a long, rounded curve across the middle, with a rather sharp shoulder each side. The most useful hammer to use is a backing hammer, No. 3 (shown above). Never hit straight down on a back, but always with a sideway movement, drawing the paper towards the right or the lett.

Fig. 14.   Book in press, for backing.

Fig. 14. - Book in press, for backing.

Fig. 15.   Position of hammer in backing.

Fig. 15. - Position of hammer in backing.

Fig. 16.   Appearance of back after backing.

Fig. 16. - Appearance of back after backing.

Book-binding: Designs for Covers by E. de Rheims.

Border Design. With Inlaid Flowers, Leaves and Rings.

Border Design. With Inlaid Flowers, Leaves and Rings.

The Art Of Bookbinding A Series Of Practical Lesso 116

This very simple design, suitable for a serious book, looks well carried out in white undressed morocco, the lines being blindtooled. It is equally effective but more elaborate when worked on red morocco, the squares being inlaid with a darker shade of the same colour and gilded. Inlaid rings may also take the place of the solid dots.

The Art Of Bookbinding A Series Of Practical Lesso 117Full size details of the above Designs.

Full-size details of the above Designs.

Cut the boards to the exact size required. If the leaves are to be cut all round, the boards will be made practically the same size as the book, but if they are to be uncut, the boards must be made about an eighth of an inch larger on each side to allow for margin. Lay a carpenter's square along the edge that is already straight, and draw a line as near the top as possible with a sharp-pointed knife.

The Art Of Bookbinding A Series Of Practical Lesso 119

Fig. 17. - Squaring top edge of board.

The Art Of Bookbinding A Series Of Practical Lesso 120

Fig. 18. - Measuring length of board.

Put the book in the King-press with a waste-board underneath with the line just showing above the press, and then cut {Fig. 17). Mark the length of the book, measuring from the cut edge of the board, which cut, after having first squared it.