A few tools remain which, while necessary, are so common as hardly to require either illustration or description. Among these are the hammer, the best form of which for the pattern maker is shown in Fig. 67, and the mallet, of which the best form is shown in Fig. 68.
A mallet that is to be used on the handle of firmer chisels and other pattern maker's tools, should not be made of hickory or of mum-vitae, nor have hard-rubber or hard-fibre facing. Mallets us made soon mar, splinter, and destroy the tool-handles on which they are used. Beechwood and maple furnish the best material for mallet-heads for the use of the woodworker who works in pine and other soft woods. It is true that the mallet-head will not last so long if made of beech or maple wood; but the chisel and gouge handles will be protected, which is a matter of much greater importance.
The scratch-awl, Fig. 70, although used but little at the work-bench (a knife being used in its place for all accurate markings), is indispensable to the pattern maker for laying out the dimensions on his work while it is revolving in the turning lathe. It should be long and slender, as shown, and is used on the revolving wood by placing it over the required graduation of the rule, while the latter is held on the tool rest.
Brads and small wire nails must often be driven at such an angle to the grain of the wood, or in such a position, as to make it necessary first to bore a small hole in order to start the brad in the required direction. The brad-awl, illustrated in Fig. 71, is a convenient tool for this purpose. It is commonly ground to a chisel point, as shown at a, but will be less liable to cause splitting, and will work faster and with greater ease, if ground to a double spear point, as shown at b. The four corners, if kept sharp, will enter the wood and cut faster than the chisel point.
Side-cutting pliers, such as are illustrated in Fig. 72, will be found convenient not only for cutting off wire and brads, but for removing small brads and for holding small pieces while being worked to shape.
Among the tools which cannot be dispensed with are the brace and an assortment of boring bits. The most desirable style of brace is the ratchet brace, illustrated in Fig. 73. The convenience of the ratchet will soon be apparent from the necessity, so often arising, for boring holes or driving screws (with the brace) in angles or close to projections where the full sweep of the brace cannot be taken. Braces are made in many sizes, with sweep varying from 6 inches to 14 inches in diameter.
A brace with an 8-inch sweep is the most convenient in size for boring holes one inch or less in diameter in soft wood. For larger holes, and especially in very hard woods, a 10-inch or 12 inch sweep will be necessary.
Wood-boring bits are made in many styles. The most important are the auger bits, two styles of which are shown in Fig. 74.
They can be bought in sizes running by sixteenths of an inch from ¼ inch to 1 inch. For holes larger than one inch, the No. 2 extension bit, shown in Fig. 75, is the best. It has two cutters, and will bore a hole of any size from 7/8 inch to 3 inches in diameter.
For screw-holes, the gimlet bit or the twist drill for wood, both of which are illustrated in Fig. 76, can be bought in all sizes running by thirty-seconds of an inch from 1/32 inch up to § inch.
The brace screw-driver, and also the brace countersink for screw-heads, are important tools. They are shown in Fig. 77, and can be bought in large, medium, and small sizes.
The half-round cabinet file and half-round cabinet rasp, shown in Fig. 78, enter largely into the work of the pattern maker, and should be bought in sizes each of 6 inches, 8 inches, and 10 inches. Larger as well as intermediate sizes may often be found necessary, but will not be needed for ordinary work.
Every pattern shop should have at least one dozen each of three or four different sizes of hand-screws or clamps similar to that shown in Fig. 79. These are adjustable through wide ranges. They are used for clamping together the materia! that is being glued up to form the different parts of a pattern, and are convenient also for many other purposes, The all-iron 0 clamp, shown in Fig. 80, is sometimes useful in positions that are hard to reach with a hand-screw. The method of udjusting and of using the hand-screw will be fully explained later.