This section is from the book "Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs", by Edward Spon. Also available from Amazon: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book.
This pine inhabits the rocky mountains of Europe, and is cultivated in English plantations; it reaches 50-60 and even 70 ft. in height. It likes deep dry sand, or sandy loam in a dry bottom; but avoids all calcareous soils. The wood is said to be more durable in water than in air. It is much used in France for shipping-packages, piles and props in ship-building, common carpentry and fuel. It weighs 25 1/2 lb. a cub. ft.
This tree is said to be abundant in portions of S.W. Tasmania, growing 50-100 ft. high and 3-8 ft. diam. The wood is clean and fine-grained, being closer and more durable than American White Pine, and can be had in logs 12-20 ft. long and 2 ft. sq. Its weight is 40 lb. a cub. ft. It is considered one of the handsomest and most suitable woods for bedroom furniture, bearing a strong resemblance to satinwood. From its lasting qualities, it is much prized for shipbuilding.
This abundant Queensland tree grows over 150 ft. high and 5 ft. diam., giving spars 80-100 ft. long. Its wood is straight-grained, tough, and excellent for joinery; but is not so durable as Yellow Pine, and is liable to attacks of sea-worms and white ants. It is used for flooring and general carpentry, and for shingles; it holds nails and screws well. Its weight is 45 lb. a cub. ft. It is strong and lasting either when dry or actually under water, but will not bear alternations of dryness and damp. When grown on the mountains of the interior, the wood is fine-grained and takes a polish which is described as superior to that of satin-wood or bird's-eye maple. Its average value is 55s.-70s. per 1000 ft. super.
This tree inhabits Norfolk Island and Australia, growing 200-250 ft. high and 10-12 ft. diam. Its wood is tough, close-grained, and very durable for indoor work.
This species is found throughout Canada and the United States, most abundantly along the Atlantic coast. The wood is heavy, close-grained, elastic, and durable, but very brittle when old or dry, and difficult to plane. The heartwood is good against alternate damp and dryness, but inferior to White Pine underground. Its weight is 41 lb. per cub. ft.; cohesive force, 9796 lb. per sq. in.; stiffness, 73; strength, 82; toughness, 92. The best comes from the S. States of N. America, chiefly from the ports of Savannah, Ilarien, and Pensacola. The colour is reddish-white or brown; the annual rings are wide, strongly marked, and form beautiful figures after working and varnishing. The timber is very resinous, making it sticky and troublesome to plane, but very durable; it is hard, heavy, very strong, free from knots, but contains much sapwood, is subject to heart and cup shake, and soon rots in damp; it is brittle when dry, and often rendered inferior by the trees having been tapped for turpentine. Its resinous nature prevents its taking paint well. It is used in the heaviest timber structures, for deep planks in ships, and makes very durable flooring.
Market forms are logs 11-18 (aver. 16) in. sq., 20-45 ft. long; planks 20-45 ft. long, 10-15 in. wide, 3-5 in. thick.