10 parts chalk, 10 blue clay, 5 bones, 2 flint, 1 1/4 blue calx. All the materials should be ground together, as much depends on the different articles being well united, which adds greatly to the fineness in colour and lustre. It fires at the temperature of earthenware ovens.

Lilac Porcelain

200 parts bones, 115 Cornish clay, 25 blue clay, 20 flint, 15 chalk, 10 Cornish stone, 1 1/4 blue calx.


(a) 360 parts bones, 230 Cornish clay, 50 Cornish stone, 20 flint, 20 blue or brown clay, 10 body frit, 1/2 blue calx.

(6) 400 parts bones, 360 Cornish clay, . 250 Cornish stone, 20 flint, 2/3 blue calx.

Printed Earthenware

(A) Superior

3 parts blue clay, 1 black or brown clay, 2 Cornish clay, 1 1/4 flint, 1/4 Cornish stone.

(6) Common

2 parts blue clay, 2 brown or black clay, 1 Cornish clay, 1 1/4 flint.


150 parts blue clay, 100 Cornish stone, 100 bones. 52 plaster used for making rings and setters, for placing porcelain and ironstone; the porcelain clay which gets dirty or injured by working may be used for the same purpose, in the proportion of two of the former to one of the latter.

Saucer Mould

10 parts flint, 4 blue clay, 2 Cornish clay, 1 black clay. Prepared for the sole purpose of making moulds, principally those of saucers; moulds made in this way are preferable, and considerably more durable than those which are made of plaster; the contraction of this clay in burning is inconsiderable.


480 parts Cornish stone, 250 blue and brown clay, 240 Cornish clay, 10 glass, 1 blue calx. This body will be sufficiently vitrified at the temperature of the earthenware biscuit oven, and is adapted for the purpose of manufacturing jugs, mugs, and so on; it is requisite to place rings on each piece of ware, in order to keep them from being crooked when burnt in the oven; in all other respects to be treated as earthenware bodies.

Stone Mortar

480 parts Cornish stone, 250 blue and brown clay, 240 Cornish clay, 10 glass, principally used for making stone mortars, and when burnt is of a yellowish white, absolutely vitrified, exceedingly strong, very durable, and produces a clear bell sound.


50 parts chalk, 50 blue clay, 25 bones, 10 flint. This body is of the same consistency, and requires the same temperature as the jasper body. It is perfectly adapted also for the purpose of figures in bas-relief, and other ornamental work.

Coloured Clays

These clays are for the purpose of painting porous coolers and bottles in the Mosaic style, and are equally applicable to the ornamenting of china and earthenware; the mixtures must be well ground, for their fineness has a great tendency to equalise the contraction and expansion of bodies in firing.


4 parts black Egyptian clay, .1 white clay, 1 blue clay.


30 parts white clay, 1 blue ealx.


12 parts white clay, 1 nickel, J blue clay.


4 parts yellow clay, 2 Cornish clay, 1 flint, \ Cornish stone.


4 parts blue clay, 2 Cornish clay, 2 flint, 1 Cornish stone.

Colours under Glaze, with the exception of the green, should be mixed together and calcined in a reverberatory furnace or glazing oven, in seggar hil-lers, or dishes lined with flint; then spread on the mixture about an inch in thickness, observing that the hiller or dish have a sufficient access of air allowed, to prevent the metals from reviving again in their metallic state; the green ingredients only require grinding.

Naples Yellow

12 parts white-lead, 2 diaphoretic antimony-, 1 crude sal ammoniac, 1/2 alum. Mix intimately, calcine in a crucible, over a slow fire, for the space of three hours, stirring it nearly the whole of the time, when the mass will be found of a beautiful yellow or gold colour.

Lining Brown

7 parts glass of antimony, 3 raw litharge, 2 1/2 manganese, 1 nitre, 1 blue calx.

Fainting Brown

5 parts glass of antimony, 5 raw litharge, 2 manganese, 1/2 blue calx.


6 parts raw litharge, 4 crude antimony, 2 crocus-martis, 1 tin oxide.


4 parts raw litharge, 3 crude antimony, 1 1/2 tin oxide.

Printed Broun

5 parts raw litharge, 5 crude antimony, 2 1/2 manganese, 1 blue calx.

Printed Black

3 parts red-lead, 1 1/4 antimony, 3/4 manganese. After these ingredients have been calcined, add the following, and calcine again: 2 parts blue calx, tin oxide. This black under glaze, in the last stage of preparation, must be calcined in the highest heat of a biscuit oven, and crystal glaze is the most suitable to it. The ware must be fired in an easy part of the glazing oven; the brown calcined in the usual way, and dipped in the common printed glaze.

Printed Mulberry

4 parts manganese, 2 blue calx, 1 nitre, 1/2 borax. Calcine this colour in the usual way, cither in a dish or seggar hiller, and after the mixture is spread on the dish or hiller, a small quantity of pounded nitre should be scattered thinly over, and when calcined, add 2 parts flint glass, 1 flint; then grind all the ingredients up together for use.

Green For Edging

3 parts copper oxide, 3 flint glass, 2 flint, 2 tin oxide, 1 enamel blue. Grind these ingredients together, after which add 8 qt. earthenware printed glaze, and 4 qt. cream-colour glaze, mix well together, and sift them through a fine lawn. Lay this green on the ware after it is dipped, and fire it in the coolest part of the glazing oven.

Blue Printed Flux

(a) 2 parts flint, 1 frit for glazes, 1/2 flint glass, (b) 5 parts flint, 1 1/2 borax, 1/2 nitre, (c) 3 parts flint glass, 21 flint, 1 nitre, 1 borax.

Painting And Edging Blue

2 parts blue calx, 3 frit for glazes, 1} flint glass, 1 flint, 1/2 white-lead. The frit should be prepared without the tin oxide, when mixed with the blue calx, for that metal and arsenic are both prejudicial to its colour.

Strong Printing Blue

2 parts blue calx, 3 blue printed flux.

Weak Printing Blue

1 part blue calx, 4 blue printed flux (6).