Sign or pattern boards ought to be chosen of old well-seasoned wood; oak or mahogany is much the best, but many are made of pine, which ought to be sound, straight, close-grained, well dried, and made with pieces let in across the back, to prevent warping. Thus prepared, brush the board over back and front with equal quantities of raw linseed oil, japanners' gold size, and turpentine, to which add a little ground white-lead, driving or rubbing out the colour well. For the second coat, take equal quantities of white-lead, common spruce ochre, and whiting, all well dried, and ground fine and stiff, separately with raw oil; mix the whole together; add sufficient of gold size to cause it to dry quickly, firm, and hard; dilute with turpentine to a proper consistence, and apply two or three coats of the above colour. When dry and hard, rub it smooth with either sand-pnper or pumice and water; then grind equal portions of spruce ochre, whiting, bath-brick, and white-lead, with two parts oil and one part turpentine, adding a little gold size, diluted with turpentine, and apply one, two, or three coats, if necessary, taking care to rub down and wash off the panel after each coat, repeating rubbing and colouring until the panel is as smooth and level as plate glass; it is then fit to receive the required last coat, to write, marble, paint, or grain upon.

The finishing application, whether it be a plain ground, landscape, figure, or letters, ought to stand until thoroughly dry and hard; it should finally be varnished twice over with best body copal or amber varnish, as the delicacy of the painting will admit.