"The cleansing or separation of the peritoneal membrane, a portion only of which has been removed by the " un-greasing" at the slaughter-house, is ordinarily performed at the conclusion of a putrid fermentation that constitutes one of the most repulsive details of this industry. This maceration, whose duration varies from 8 days to a month, according to the season, is intended to partly decompose the mucus and render it less adherent, so that the workmen may be able to detach it without risk of injuring the quality of the gut. Some manufacturers are commencing to adopt Labarraque's process, consisting in immersing the intestines in a solution of sodium chloride, which hinders all putrid fermentation. A few hours then suffice for the retting or maceration of the gut." He adds that at one works the Conseil d'Hygiene publique ordered the use of " sodium chloride at 12° to 13° B., in the proportion of about 3 1/2 lb. in 2 or 3 buckets of water per vat containing the guts of 50 oxen."
At Coulson's sausage factory at Cambridge, Dr. Ballard found it was the practice to immerse the fresh guts for a few days before scraping them in a weak solution of chloralum; this treatment avoids noxious odours, does not injure the gut,and does not in any way interfere with the scraping. Dr. Ballard lays down the following rules as essential for carrying on this trade without creating a nuisance: - (1) A building specially erected or carefully adapted to the peculiarities of the trade, sufficiently spacious, and situated as far as practicable in a locality not closely built in. The chamber where any of the more offensive parts of the trade are conducted should have no direct communication with other rooms. It should be lighted either from the sides or roof with windows incapable of being opened, 2 and ventilation should be provided for independently. It appears to him that the best mode of managing this would be to arrange for the drawing off of the foul air of the chamber continuously, and conducting it through a fire, or first through a screen of wood charcoal and then through a fire, and that the air for the supply of the room should be drawn from the outside through screens, or properly arranged boxes containing wood charcoal, duly protected from wet and damp, and from time to time renewed, which, when the room was shut up at night would serve to arrest the passage outwards of offensive effluvia.
The inner walls, to the height of about 6 ft., should be covered with some impervious material capable of being washed, such as smooth cement or sheet zinc. (2) The floor should be paved with an impervious paving, preferably jointless, and it should be properly sloped to a duly trapped drain gully. (3) There should be an unrestricted supply of water. (4) Scrupulous cleanliness should be observed in the conduct of the business. The floor should be kept constantly sprinkled with some deodorant solution, such as of carbolic acid or chloride of lime; no unnecessary litter should be allowed, and any that may be made should be frequently swept up, and, together with refuse matters and scrapings, should be deposited, with the addition of a deodorant, in appropriate vessels made of some impervious material, such as galvanised iron, and covered with covers of like material when not required to be open for use. At the close of each day's work, the floor and walls, to the height of the impervious portion, should be washed down with water containing some deodorant, and all tubs, tables, benches, and utensils that have been in use should be similarly cleansed.
The inner walls and ceilings should be periodically lime-whited. (5) All un-dried gut brought upon the premises should be brought in closed impervious vessels, which should not be opened except in the chamber where they are to be manipulated, and all refuse matters should be removed from the premises daily in the closed vessels in which they are deposited. Any gut which arrives in an offensive condition should at once be placed in a deodorant solution; and some antiseptic solution should (as appears to be practicable) be used for the soaking even of fresh guts on their first arrival. (6) Great care should be taken in dealing with the refuse matters after removal from the premises. If deposited anywhere upon land, the matters should at once be covered over with a layer of fresh earth. At Calne, where the nuisance from the deposit of refuse in farm premises was at one time intolerable at a distance of several hundred yards, the nuisance has, without altering the position of the deposit, been obviated. A wall of straw litter is made, enclosing a space within which the refuse is thrown, and the offensive matter is immediately covered np with dry earth and ashes: this building up of the wall and deposit of refuse and earth is continued until a sufficient mound is raised.
When it becomes necessary to remove this as manure, it is removed inoffensively. Such a stack as this should, however, be protected from the rain.
This substance, also called Florence gut, or simply Florence, is the fine strong fibre universally employed by anglers for attaching their hooks. Its preparation is thus described by Mrs. Whitby: - There are some silkworms which come to maturity, turn yellow, but not clear, yet show no disposition to rise on the manello. The person in charge should walk round the laboratory once every morning and evening, and collect all such fat, heavy, opaque-looking creatures, and put them into a basin of half vinegar, half water; here they should be left 12 hours, and treated thus: - A board should be prepared, 30 in. by 6, with a row of pegs at each end, and notches all round the edges. Two intestinal canals run through the length of the silkworm; these should be separated from the head of the insect while in the vinegar and water, and the threads, one by one, drawn out rapidly to their full extent, and fixed at full stretch on the board, by means of the pegs and notches. Expedition is to be observed, as the air soon hardens the strings; they must on no account be passed through the finger and thumb, as they are of no value if flat. The yellow mucilage which clings to the strings is removed afterwards by being boiled in soap and water.
When the Florence (for the time being) is drawn out, the board should be placed in the sun to dry. To clean the gut, take a bit of soap the size of a nutmeg, and boil it in a gallon of water.- When the soap is dissolved, put the Florence into it, and boil for 10 minutes; take it out, and pass it through cotton, to remove what may remain of the yellow matter, but pass it so lightly that the gut, which becomes soft by boiling, may not be flattened. When again stretched and dried on the board, it becomes clear and strong. Experience alone can bring this to perfection, but it is worth the trial with silkworms which will not spin, and which would therefore be lost; and, if well made, Florence should sell for 1/2d. or 1d. the string, according to its length, strength, roundness, and clearness." There is room for experiment on other plant-eating caterpillars with a view to utilising them in this way.