The standing and running parts of each rope must pass through the loop in the same direction, i. e. from above downwards, or vice versa. If they pass in the opposite direction the knot is termed a granny, and cannot be undone when tightened up with the same ease that a reef knot can. A draw reef knot d is made in the same manner, except that a bight is drawn through instead of the rope end; it is useful to cast off when in an inaccessible position. Single sheet bend e is used for joining the ends of a rope, or hanging to a bight. Take a bight or double at one end, holding it in the left hand, and pass the end of the other rope held in the right hand up through this bight, down on one side under and up over the bight, and under its own standing end. The double sheet bend /, in which the running end is passed twice round the bight and under its own standing end each time, is used where greater security is required; g shows two half-hitches; A, round turn and two half-hitches; and i the fishermen's bend. In the latter, two turns are taken round the spar, or other object, and the end is passed oyer the standing part, and through the turns next to the spar, over its own part then forming one half-hitch, the second half-hitch being taken round the standing part alone.

It is very useful for attaching ropes to rings or staples. Sometimes it is necessary to shorten a length of rope quickly. This can be done as shown by sheepshank k; lay the rope up in 3 parts, and a hitch taken over each bight, with the standing and running parts respectively of the rope, and drawn tight. To secure a rope to the end of a beam or spar, a clove hitch lm n is used, made as follows: - Grasp the rope with the left hand, back down, and right hand back up. Reverse each hand so as to form two loops /, lay them together as at m, and slip the two loops so formed over the end of beam or spar. In case the loops cannot be slipped on to the end, pass the end over and round the spar, and bring it up to the left of the standing part, and again round the spar, in the same direction, to the right of the first turn, and bring the end up, between the spar, the last turn, and the standing part n. This is one of the most useful knots for making fast to an object; it is very simple, and so effective that generally the rope breaks before slipping. Timber hitch o is useful for lifting timber or dragging spars. When properly made, it will not slip; it is easily undone when the strain is taken off. Pass the end round the spar, and round its standing part, close to the spar.

Then twist it two or three times back round itself, and draw tight. A half-hitch taken with the standing part adds to its security.

Knots.

Knots.

Bowline knot is shown in p r s. Holding the standing part in the left hand, form a loop in the rope running end uppermost, loop towards the body; pass the running end up through the loop, as shown at p, down under the standing part from right to left, back over the standing part, and through the original loop; then draw taut the end and double of the loop together r. A running bowline s can be formed round a spar, and tightened at any point. To make it, take the coil of the rope in the left hand, pass the running end round the spar from left to right, and draw it back with the right hand as far as required; still holding the end in the right hand; take the standing part in the same hand; pass the left hand under the standing part, and with the finger and thumb seize the running part of the rope close to the spar; draw it underneath the standing part from right to left and up, and at that point make a bowline knot on it with the running end. The knot is then run through the loop. Its use is to form a loop at the end of a rope that will not slip, or tighten up.

Oatspaw t: 2 loops made on a rope in order to hang a tackle on. To make it form two equal bights or loops t. Grasp a loop in each hand, and roll them on the standing part 3 or 4 complete turns; then hook into both loops A, Fig. 339. This is an exceedingly handy method of attaching a rope to the block hook, owing to its simplicity, and the ready manner in which it can be eased off.

Whipping BCD. To whip a rope, is to tie a piece of small twine round the end, to prevent the strands from untwining and forming loose ends. Ropes intended for tackles particularly should be whipped before the blocks are threaded. When treated in this manner ropes will easily pass through the block sheaves, thus preventing much annoyance and waste of rope, it being quite a common occurrence with some workmen to cut a yard off the rope end because it is frayed. Take a piece of fine twine, 2-3 ft. long in proportion to the size of the rope, and place it as shown in B, one end to the right, the other to the left, quite close to the rope. Wind the loop a b c tightly round the end of the rope /, and the two ends d e of the whipping twine, a sufficient number of times to secure the ends C; then by drawing the two ends de tight, the whipping is tightened up D.

Knots.

Knots.

E represents a double Black wall hitch. It is used for securing a tackle to a rope. To make it, place the rope near its end, against the hook of the block at a, cross the rope at b, and again inside the hook at c. If seized with a few turns of twine at d it will be more secure. This method of attachment will in a great measure prevent the rope from cutting itself on the hook.

Carrick bend F. Lay the end of a rope or chain under its own standing part, as shown at G, then with another rope or chain c d, lay its end under both parts of the eye formed by a 6, and parallel to that part which is uppermost) then bring it alternately over and under the parts of a b and itself. This knot is used for fastening the 4 guys to a derrick. But its principal use is for bending a large rope to a small one.