Drag rope knot H I K. This is a useful knot for attaching hand spikes to drag by. It may also be used as a ladder by securing it firmly at each end.

The sheet-bend or weavers' knot A, Fig. 340. This knot is usually cm-ployed by netters, and is called by sailors "the sheet bend." It is readily made by bending one of the pieces of cord into a loop a 6, which is to be held between the finger and thumb of the left hand; the other cord c is passed through the loop from the farther side, then round behind the two legs of the loop, and lastly under itself, the loose end coming out at d. In the smallness of its size, and the firmness with which the various parts grip together, this knot surpasses every other; it can, moreover, be tied readily when one of the pieces a b is exceedingly short; in common stout twine, less than 1 in. is sufficient to form the loop. The above method of forming it is the simplest to describe, although not the most rapid in practice; as it maybe made in much less time by crossing the two ends of cord a b in B on the tip of the forefinger of the left hand, and holding them firmly by the left thumb, which covers the crossing; then the part c is to be wound round the thumb in a loop, as shown in the figure, and passed between the two ends, behind a and before 6; the knot is completed by turning the end 6 downwards in front of d, passing it through the loop c, and tightening the whole by pulling d.

As formed in this mode, it is more rapidly made than almost any other knot; and, as before stated, it excels all in security and compactness; so firmly do the various turns grip each other that, after having been tightly pulled, it is very difficult to untie; this is the only drawback to its usefulness, and in this respect it is inferior to the reef-knot, which is made in precisely the same manner that a shoe-string is tied, only pulling out the ends instead of leaving them as bows.

Binding knot C D. This knot is exceedingly useful in connecting broken sticks, rods, etc, but some difficulty is often experienced in fastening it at the finish; if, however, the string is placed over the part to be united, as shown in D, and the long end 6 is used to bind around the rod, and finally passed through the loop a, as shown in C, it is readily secured by pulling d, when the loop is drawn in, and fastens the end of the cord.

Clove hitch E F. For fastening a cord to any cylindrical object, one of the most useful knots is the clove hitch, which, although exceedingly simple and most easily made, is one of the most puzzling knots to the uninitiated. There are several modes of forming it, the most simple being perhaps as follows: - Make two loops, precisely similar in every respect, as a and 6 in E, then bring b in front of a, so as to make both loops correspond, and pass them over the object to be tied, tightening the ends; if this is properly done, the knot will not slip although surrounding a tolerably smooth cylindrical object, as a pillar, pole, etc. This knot is employed by surgeons in reducing dislocations of the last joint of the thumb, and by sailors in great part of the standing rigging. The loop which is formed when a cable is passed around a post or tree to secure a vessel near shore, is fastened by what sailors term two half-hitches, which is simply a clove hitch made by the end of the rope which is passed around the post or tree, and then made to describe the clove hitch around that part of itself which is tightly strained, as in F. Tying a parcel G H. The tying up of parcels in paper is an operation which is seldom neatly performed by persons whose occupations have not given them great facilities for constant practice.

Let a single knot be made in the end of the cord, which is then passed around the box or parcel. This knotted end is now tied by a single hitch around the middle of the cord G, and the whole is pulled tight. The cord itself is then carried at right angles round the end of the parcel, and where it crosses the transverse cord on the bottom of the box H it should, if the parcel is heavy and requires to be firmly secured, be passed over the cross cord, then back underneath it, and pulled tightly, then over itself; lastly, under the cross cord, and on around the other end of the box. When it reaches the top, it must be secured by passing it under that part of the cord which runs lengthways in a G, pulling it very tight, and fastening it by two half-hitches round itself. The great cause of parcels becoming loose is the fact of the cord being often fastened to one of the transverse parts as b in G, instead of the piece running lengthways, and in this case it invariably becomes loose. The description may perhaps be rendered clearer by the aid of the figures, which exhibit the top and bottom of a box corded as described.

The cords, however, are shown in a loose state, to allow their arrangement to be perceived more easily.

Knots and splices.

Knots and splices.

Short splicing I K. There are two ways of making a short splice - one by passing the strands left-handed, the other by passing them right-handed. But the former method is the more generally adopted, because of its neat appearance. Unlay the strands of each rope about 1 ft. or more, then crutch them together - that is, lay them so that each strand lies in a groove of the rope. Afterwards pass a strand of one rope over a strand of the other, as shown in I, front view, where No. 4 is passed over No 1, so as to form a common knot. In a like manner pass No. 5 over No. 3, and No. 6 over No. 2. Draw these strands tight, and proceed as follows: - Take strand No. 6, K, back view, and after reducing the yarns by cutting a few out of the inside, pass it over No. 2; continue doing so until it is worked out. It will be seen, by reference to E, that No. 6 is passed three times over No. 2, but the third time it is merely pushed through and not drawn tight. Strands Nos. 4 and 2 are in a similar position. All the corresponding Nos. represent the same strand, so No. 4 will pass over the same strand (No. 1) till worked out; No. 1 over No. 4, and No. 2 over No. 6. No. 5, which is shown loose, passes over No. 3. In passing the strands be careful to reduce the yarns each time after the first, and spread them out so that they will lie flat, and also see that all the yarns lie parallel.