Steel castings to be sound, true, and clean, and free from honeycomb.

Pieces of 1 inch square, taken from each cast or blow of steel, to have a breaking strain of 26 tons per square inch, with an elongation of not less than 10 per cent, in a length of 8 inches. A test piece, 1 inch square, shall be capable of bending cold in a press or over a slab or block with a fair surface, with the edge with a rounding of 1 inch radius, through an angle of 45°.

The castings to be thoroughly annealed by being put in a special furnace and carefully heated up to a bright cherry-red and then allowed to cool gradually. The castings are not to be taken out of the furnace until sufficiently cool to admit of them being easily handled without covering. The duration of time from heating to cooling to be not less than seven days.

The castings to be afterwards slung and tested by hammering to ensure soundness.

All castings to be chipped and dressed to remove roughness or inequalities.

All test pieces required are to be properly shaped and prepared for testing at the contractors' cost.

Tables Of The Results Of Physical Tests On The Ultimate Tensile Strength And Elongation Of Open-Hearth Mild Steel For Ordinary Structural Work. Table No. 4. Tests On Mild Steel Angles

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength.

Tons per sq.inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches. Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel angles.

1

9"

X

3"

X

1"

28.0

26.0

Bending tests satisfactory

2

8"

X

3"

X

⅝"

30.2

22.0

" "

3

" "

29.1

260

" "

4

" "

30.0

29.0

" "

5

7"

X

4"

X

⅝"

29.9

27.0

" "

6

" "

28.7

28.0

" "

7

7"

X

3"

X

⅝"

28.7

26.0

" "

8

7"

X

3

X

"

28.5

25.0

" "

9

7"

X

3"

X

⅜"

30.8

25.0

'Excess strength slight, elongation good, so allowed

10

" "

30.7

26.0

11

6"

X

4"

X

⅝"8

30.1

25.0

Bending tests satisfactory

12

6"

X

6"

X

11/16"

27.2

23..0

" "

13

6"

X

6"

X

⅝"

26.6

23.0

" "

14

6"

X

4"

X

"

28.1

26.0

" "

15

" "

28.6

24.0

" "

16

6"

X

3"

X

"

27.32

29.5

" "

17

6"

X

3"

X

2

26.3

23.0

" "

18

" "

28.1

27.5

" "

19

" "

31.3

23.0

Somewhat above the specified maximum, but the elongation being good, the test was allowed

20

6"

X

3"

X

⅜"

28.7

27.0

Bending tests satisfactory

21

" "

28.7

27.0

" "

22

" "

28.6

24.0

" "

23

" "

28.4

22.0

" "

24

5"

X

5"

X

⅝"

279

27.0

" "

25

5"

X

5"

X

"

29.7

25.0

" "

26

5"

X

3"

X

"

29.9

25.0

" "

27

5"

X

3"

X

⅜"

29.8

25.0

" "

28

" "

29.6

230

" "

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in : 8 inches. Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel angles.

29

5"

X

3"

X

⅜'

29.8

28.0

Bending tests satisfactory

30

" "

28.6

270

" "

31

" "

28.1

240

" "

32

" "

29.2

25.0

" "

33

" "

295

27.0

" "

34

" "

29.4

240

" "

35

5"

X

3"

X

⅜"

29.4

26.0

" "

36

" "

29.6

26.0

" "

37

4"

X

4"

X

⅝"

28.6

25.0

" "

38

" "

28.7

24.0

" "

39

4"

X

3"

X

"

26.8

28.0

" "

40

4"

X

3"

X

⅜"

29.1

29.0

" "

41

" "

29.3

26.0

" "

42

4"

X

4"

X

⅝"

27.7

29.0

" "

43

" "

30.3

24.0

" "

44

" "

27.4

32.0

" "

45

4"

X

4"

X

"

28.2

30.0

" "

46

" "

29.7

28.0

" "

47

4"

X

3"

X

⅝"

28.9

260

" "

48

4"

X

X

"

29.9

27.0

" "

49

" "

28.2

26.0

" "

50

4"

X

3"

X

⅝"

29.2

23.0

" "

51

4"

X

3"

X

"

275

25.5

" "

52

" "

277

26.0

" "

53

" "

27.9

21.0

" "

54

" "

27.4

34.0

" "

55

" "

27.7

26.0

" "

56

" "

28.0

23.0

" "

57

" "

28.2

27.0

" "

58

" "

27.8

24.0

" "

59

" "

28.8

27.0

" "

60

" "

30.0

25.0

" "

61

4"

X

3"

X

⅜"

28.3

25.0

" "

62

" "

28.2

29.0

" "

63

" "

28.9

25.0

" "

64

" "

29.7

23.5

" "

65

" "

27.7

29 0

" "

66

" "

28.2

27.0

" "

67

" "

27.8

29.0

" "

68

4"

X

3"

x

5/16"

29.0

21.5

" "

69

3"

X

3"

X

⅝"

29.8

27.0

" "

70

" "

29.1

25.0

" "

71

" "

28.7

29.0

" "

72

" "

27.7

29.0

" "

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel angles.

73

3"

X

3"

X

⅝"

27.8

26.0

Bending tests satisfactory

74

" "

28.7

29.0

" "

75

" "

27.7

29.0

" ""

76

3

X

3"

X

"

29.0

26.5

" "

77

" "

27.8

30.0

" "

78

" "

28.2

32 0

" "

79

" "

28.0

25.0

" "

80

" "

261

30.0

" "

81

" "

26.5

30.0

" "

82

" "

27.4

28.0

" "

83

" "

26.3

28.0

" "

84

" "

26.7

31.0

" "

85

" "

26.6

28.5

" "

86

" "

26.7

28.5

" "

87

" "

27.6

32.0

" "

88

" "

28.6

25.0

" "

89

" "

28.9

27.5

" "

90

" "

30.0

25.0

" "

91

" "

29.9

28.0

" "

92

" "

28.7

27.0

" "

93

" "

293

26.0

" "

94

" "

29.1

25.0

" "

95

" "

30.0

24.0

" "

96

" "

291

27.0

" "

97

" "

30.1

25.0

Excess strength slight, elongation good, so allowed

98

3"

X

3"

X

"

30.3

25.0

Round backed

99

3"

X

3"

X

⅜"

27.6

27.0

Bending tests satisfactory

100

" "

28.5

26.0

" "

101

" "

28.2

27.0

" "

102

" "

28.4

28.0

" "

103

3"

' X

3"

X

"

28.5

24.0

" "

104

"

30.2

24.0

" "

105

"

28.1

28.0

" "

106

3"

'X

3"

X

⅜"

29.1

26.0

" "

107

" "

29.1

26.0

" "

108

3"

X

3"

X

"

27.0

23.0

" "

109

" "

26.5

29.0

" "

110

" "

29.2

27.0

" "

1l1

" "

30.7

27.0

25.0

Excess strength slight, elongation good, so allowed

112

" "

30.9

113

" "

27.9

25.5

Bending tests satisfactory

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Percent.

Remarks.

Mild steel angles.

114

3"

X

3"

X

"

28.7

27-5.

Bending tests satisfactory

115

" "

27.2

27.0

" "

116

" "

27.7

26.0

' "

117

" "

29.4

27.0

' "

118

3"

X

3"

X

⅜"

27.2

26.0

" "

119

" "

28.2

28.0

" "

120

"

28.9

29.0

" "

121

" "

29.8

29.0

" "

122

" "

27.5

28.0

" "

123

" "

28.5

25.0

" "

124

" "

29.1

27.0

" "

125

3"

X

2"

X

⅜"

29.8

25.0

" "

126

" "

26.8

25.0

" "

127

" "

26.4

22.5

" "

128

3"

X

2"

X

5/16"

26.1

33.0

" "

129

2

X

2"

X

"

28.4

26.0

" "

130

2"

X

2"

' X

⅜"

27.0

29.0

" "

131

" "

27*3

30.0

" "

132

" "

29.*7

27.2

" "

133

" "

27-0

25.0

" "

134

" "

28.-9

26.0

" "

135

2"

X

2"

X

5/16"

29.-4

21.0

" "

136

" "

28.9

22.0

" "

137

" "

28.7

23.0

' "

138

" "

29.6

20.0

" "

139

" "

30.0

28.0

" "

140

2"

X

21"

X

"

28.9

22.0

" "

141

2"

X

2"

X

⅜"

29.0

20.0

" "

142

" "

29.3

25.0

" "

143

" "

28.3

24.0

" "

144

" "

28..

24.0

" "

145

2"

X

2"

X

5/16"

28..

21.0

" "

146

" "

27.5

22.0

" "

147

" "

28.7

21.0

" "

148

" "

27-3.

25.0

" "

149

" "

28-8.

22.0

" "

150

2"

X

2"

x

5/16"

31.1

22.0

Excess strength, but elongation good, so allowed

151

" "

26.0

300

Bending tests satisfactory

152

2"

X

1"

X

⅜"

30.7

20.0

Excess strength slight, elongation good, so allowed

Table No. 5. Tests On Mild Steel Tees

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq.inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches. Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel tees.

1

6"

X

4"

X

"

27.6

26.0

Bending tests satisfactory

2

6"

X

3"

X

"

28.6

27.0

" '

3

" "

27.4

290

" "

4

" "

28.1

27.5

" "

5

" "

31..3

23.0

Somewhat above the specified maximum, but the elongation being good the test was allowed.

6

" "

30.5

28.0

7

" "

26.85

31.5

Bending tests satisfactory

8

" "

29.7

27.0

" "

9

" "

29.3

25.0

" "

10

" "

29.4

28.0

" "

11

" "

31.4

22.0

Somewhat above the specified maximum, but the elongation being good the test was allowed.

12

" "

29.5

31.0

Bending tests satisfactory

13

" "

28.6

31.0

" "

14

" "

27..6

32.0

" "

15

" "

27.6

25.0

" "

16

6"

X

3"

X

⅜"

30.7

25.0

Somewhat above the specified maximum, but the elongation being good the test was allowed.

17

" "

27.4

27.5

Bending tests satisfactory

18

" "

295

26.0

" "

19

" "

29.6

27.0

" "

20

" "

27.1

29.0

" "

21

5"

X

3"

X

⅜"

29.3

29.0

" "

22

" "

29..3

26.0

" "

23

' "

29.3

31.0

" "

24

" "

29.5

28.5

" "

25

5"

X

2"

X

⅜"

28.7

27.0

" "

26

" "

29-7.

25.0

" "

27

" "

27.3

31.0

" "

28

" '

28.5

28.0

" "

29

" "

29.4

29.0

" "

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel tees.

30

5"

X

2.

X

⅜"

29.2

21.5

Bending tests satisfactory

31

4"

X

4"

X

"

29,7

28*5

" "

32

" "

28,8

29.5

" "

33

" "

28-9

28.0

" "

34

" "

29,-3

30.0

" "

35

" "

28-2

27.0

" "

36

" "

295

35.0

" "

37

" "

27,-8

25.0

" "

38

" "

27,3

32.0

" "

39

" "

27,5

330

" "

40

4"

X

4"

X

⅜"

29.7

26.0

" "

41

" "

29.3

27.5

" "

42

" "

28.9

28.0

" "

43

" '

277

28.0

" "

44

' '

29.1

27.5

" "

45

" "

27.3

300

" "

46

" "

27.5

32.0

" "

47

' '

27.1

27.0

' "

48

" "

27.6

28*0

" "

49

" "

27.7

28 0

" '

50

" "

27.6

27.0

" "

51

" "

27.6

27.0

" "

52

" "

28.6

24.0

' "

53

" "

29.2

27.0

" '

54

" "

30.3

220

" "

55

" "

294

25.0

" "

56

4"

X

3"

X

"

28.3

26.0

" "

57

4"

X

3"

X

⅜"

29.3

27.5

" "

58

2"

X

2"

X

⅜"

27.2

27.5

" "

59

2"

X

1"

X

3/16"

28.7

15.0

Broke on the datum point

60

" "

30.0

21.5

The following test, No. 60, quite satisfactory, bending tests satisfactory

Table No. 6. Tests On Mild Steel Flats

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength.

Tons per square inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches.

per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel flats.

1

18"

X

"

29.4

29.0

Bending tests satisfactory

2

"

29.2

29.5

" "

3

16"

X

"

28.9

29.0

" "

4

"

28.8

28.0

" "

5

"

27.7

28.0

" "

6

"

28.0

30.0

" "

7

16"

X

⅜"

29.0

27.0

" "

8

"

29.7

27.0

" "

9

"

28.6

25.0

" "

10

"

28.0

29.0

" "

11

14"

X

⅝"

305

26-0.

" "

12

"

27.8

28.0

" "

13

14"

X

"

27.9

29.0

" "

14

"

28.7

26.0

" "

15

"

29.7

26.0

" "

16

"

28.9

29 0.

" "

17

"

28.9

28.0

" "

18

"

29.7

27.0

" "

19

14"

X

⅜"

28.8

28.0

" "

20

12"

X

⅝"

28.5

28.0

" "

21

"

29.8

25.0

" "

22

12"

X

9/16"

27.4

28.0

" "

23

12"

X

"

31.2

23.0

Although the tensile strength is above that specified, the elongation and bending tests are satisfactory. The material was accepted

24

12"

X

"

25.2

28.0

Tensile strength below that specified, but further tests were satisfactory, so allowed

25

12"

X

"

28.1

28.5

Bending tests satisfactory

26

"

26.0

30.0

" "

27

"

28.7

29.0

" "

28

"

27.9

25.5

" "

29

"

26.8

29.0

" "

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength.

Tons per square inch

Ultimate longution in 8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel flats.

30

12"

X

⅜"

31.3

21.0

Although the tensile strength is above that specified, the elongation and bending tests are satisfactory. Material was accepted

31

11"

X

⅝"

27.2

28.5

Bending tests satisfactory

32

11"

X

"

270

32.0

" "

33

"

28.1

31.0

" "

34

"

29.5

30.0

" "

85

"

293

27.0

" "

36

10"

X

⅝"

30.0

29.0

" "

37

10"

X

⅜"

29.5

28.0

" "

38

"

29.9

290

" "

39

"

28.7

26.0

" "

40

"

28.5

28.0

" "

41

"

28.4

27.0

" '

42

9"

X

1"

29.5

21.0

" "

43

9"

X X X

⅝"

30.6

29.0

" "

44

9"

"

28.3

27.0

" "

45

9"

⅜"

28.6

25 0

" '

46

8"

X

"

27.2

270

" "

47

"

27.4

29.0

" "

48

8"

X

⅝"

29.0

265

" "

49

"

27.4

29.0

" "

50

8"

X

"

29.0

260

" "

51

"

30.0

30.0

" "

52

"

30.4

26.0

" "

53

8"

X

5/16"

29.6

29.0

" "

54

8"

X

"

28.0

30.0

" "

55

8"

X

"

27.2

24-0.

" "

56

"

26.6.

24.0

" "

57

8"

X

5/16"

30.5

26.0

" "

58

7"

X

"

27.0

31.0

" "

59

7"

X

"

27.0

31.0

" '

60

7"

X

⅞"

272

26.0

" "

61

7"

X

"

28-5.

29.0

" "

62

7"

X

⅜"

286

33.0

" "

63

"

28.5

28.0

" "

64

"

29.7

22.0

" "

65

"

30.2

27.0

" '

66

6"

X

"

26.7

28.0

" "

67

6"

X

⅝"

28.8

280

" "

68

6"

X

"

26.7

31.0

" "

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength.

Tons per square inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel flats.

69

5"

X

"

27.2

30.0

Bending tests satisfactory

70

5"

X

7/16"

277

27.0

" "

71

5"

X

1"

27.6

25.0

" "

72

5"

X

"

28.8

26.0

" "

73

5"

X

5/16"

31.2

20.0

The forge tests being satisfactory, and, having in view the thinness of the bar, the material was accepted

74

5"

X

27.1

23.0

Bending tests satisfactory

75

4"

X

⅞"

28.5

25.0

" "

76

4"

X

"

29.7

24.0

" "

77

3"

X

1"

30.0

21.0

" "

78

3"

X

1⅛"

28.4

27.0

" "

79

3"

X

"

28.0

28.0

" "

80

"

28.2

25.0

" "

81

"

28.2

24.0

" "

82

"

30.0

23.0

" "

83

"

28.6

28.0

" "

84

"

28.7

25.0

" "

85

"

27.8

28.0

" "

86

"

27.7

26.0

" "

87

"

28.6

24.0

" "

88

3"

X

⅜"

29.7

22.0

" "

89

3"

X

1"

28.3

28.0

" "

90

3"

X

⅞"

26.4

250

' "

91

3"

X

"

29.2

24.0

" "

92

3"

X

⅜"

29.5

25.0

" '

93

"

29.4

23 0

" "

94

"

28.6

22.0.

" "

95

"

29.1

21.0

" "

96

"

29.9.

20.0

" "

97

3"

X

"

29.0

24.0

" "

98

"

28.6

28.0.

" "

99

2"

X

"

27.7

23.0

" '

100

2"

X

⅝"

29.3

21.0

" "

101

2"

X

"

30.1

20.0

" "

102

2"

X

⅜"

26.0

25.0

" "

103

"

31.4

31.0

Somewhat above the specified maximum, but the elongation being good the test was allowed

104

2"

X

5/16"

27.9

26.0

Bending tests satisfactory

105

2"

X

"

27.3

24.0

" "

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength.

Tons per square inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel flats.

106

2"

X

"

29.0

28.0

Bending tests satisfactory

107

2"

X

⅜"

28.1

27.0.

" "

108

"

26.7

27.0

" "

109

1"

X

7/16"

28.2

27.0

" "

Table No. 7. Tests On Mild Steel Channels

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq.inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel channels.

1

15"

X

4"

@ 42 lbs.

29.3

250

Bending tests satisfactory

2

12"

X

3"

@ 31 lbs.

29.3

24.0

" "

3

10"

X

4

X

26.6

24.0

" "

4

" "

27.0

25.0

" "

5

10"

X

4"

X

"

30.3

30.0

" "

6

10"

X

3"

@ 26 lbs.

27.8

28.0

" "

7

" "

28.3

26.0

" "

8

9"

x

3

X

29.5

26.0

" "

9

" "

28.2

26.0

" "

10

9"

x 3"

@ 15.45 lbs.

29.9

25.0

" "

11

" "

30.1

26.0

" "

12

" "

29.8

27.0

" "

13

" "

29.5

27.0

" "

14

" "

29.6

27.0

" "

15

" "

29.5

25.0

" "

16

" "

29.4

25.0

" "

17

8"

X

3

X

"

30.2

22.0

" "

18

" "

29.5

25.0

" "

19

7⅞"

x

2⅞"

X

20 lbs.

26.3

30.0

" "

20

7⅞"

X

2"

28.3

21.0

" "

21

"

28.7

24.0

" "

22

"

281

23.0

" "

23

8

X

2"

X

15 lbs.

26.0

28.0

" "

24

" "

29.0

24.0

" "

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per .q.inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel channels.

25

7"

X

3"

X

"

29.1

27/0

Bending tests satisfactory

26

" "

29.8

22/0

' ' '

27

" "

29.0

26/0

" "

28

" "

28.3

24/0

" '

29

" "

29.5

24/0

" "

30

" "

28.8

28/0

" "

31

" "

296

21/0

" "

32

" "

28.3

25/0

" "

33

" "

30.0

23/0

" "

34

7"

X

215/16"

X

7/16"

X

"

28.1

23/0

" "

35

6'

'X

3"

X

1" 2

28.7

29/0

" "

Table No. 8. Tests On Mild Steel Rolled Joists

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel rolled joists.

1

16"

X

6" @ 62 lbs.

28.6

30.0.

Bending tests satisfactory

2

14"

X

6" @ 57 lbs.

30.6

25.0

" "

3

" "

28.2

27.0

" "

4

14"

X

6" @ 46 lbs.

27.4

21.0

" "

5

" "

27.4

30.0

" "

6

13"

X

5" @ 40 lbs.

29.7

22.0

" "

7

" "

29.4

24.0

" "

8

" "

29.6

23.0

" "

9

" "

29.6

22.0

" "

10

12"

X

6" @ 54 lbs.

29.7

23.0

" "

11

" "

28.4

24.0

" "

12

" "

28.3

25.0

" "

13

" "

28.0

22.0

" "

14

" "

28.8

28.0

" "

15

" "

28.9

28.0

" "

16

" "

28.8

24.0

" "

17

" "

28.6

21.0

" "

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq.inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches. Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel rolled joists.

18

12"

X

6" @ 54 lbs.

29-3

28.0

Bending tests satisfactory

19

" "

28.3

22.0

" "

20

" "

29.4

24.0

" "

21

" "

29.0

24.0

" "

22

" "

28'0

28.0

" "

23

12"

X

6" @ 44 lbs.

28.2

29.0

" "

24

" "

28.6

29.0

" "

25

12"

X

5" @ 32 lbs.

28.6

26.0

" "

26

" "

28.2

23.0

" "

27

" "

27.7

25.0

" "

28

' "

28.8

28.0

" "

29

10"

X

6" @ 45 lbs.

27.7

31.0

" "

30

" "

27.7

29.0

" "

31

" "

28.8

30.0

" "

32

" "

29.1

30.0

" "

33

" "

27.8

29.0

" "

34

" "

28.1

35.0

" "

35

" "

28.2

33.0

" "

36

" "

27.7

28.0

" "

37

" "

27.8

30.0

" "

38

" "

27.8

29.0

" "

39

" '

275

30.0

" "

40

" "

27.2

31.0

" "

41

" "

27.5

32.0

" "

42

" "

27.8

34.0

' "

43

" '

30.0

27.0

" "

44

" "

29.3

27.0

" "

45

" "

27.1

26.0

" "

46

" "

27.3

29.0

' "

47

" "

26.7

30.0

' "

48

" "

26.6

27.0

" "

49

10"

X

5" @ 33 lbs.

27.4

30.0

" "

50

" "

27.3

29.0

" "

51

10'

X

5" @ 29 lbs.

30.5

22.0

" "

52

" "

30.2

24.0

" "

53

" "

29.8

27.0

" "

54

9"

X

7" @ 58 lbs.

28.2

28.0

" "

55

" "

27.8

28.0

" "

56

" "

26.2

34.0

' "

57

8"

X

5" @ 30 lbs.

29.5

26.0

" "

58

8"

X

4" @ 20 lbs.

29.1

24.0

" "

59

7"

X

3" @ 16 lbs.

27.0

23.0

" "

60

" "

28.2

22.0

" "

61

6"

X

5" @ 25 lbs.

291

29.0

" "

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq.inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel rolled joists.

62

6"

X

3" @ 13 lbs.

30.0

23.0

Bending tests satisfactory

63

" "

29.2

27.0

" "

64

" "

29.8

30.0

" "

65

" "

30.8

29.0

" "

66

" "

28.7

22.0

" "

67

" "

28.4

26.0

" "

68

5"

X

4" @ 18 lbs.

31.9

24.0

" "

69

" "

28.6

22.0

" "

70

5"

X

3" @ 15 lbs.

30.0

26.0

" "

71

" "

29.9

23.5

' "

72

5"

X

3" @ 10 lbs.

29.5

23.0

" "

Table No. 9. Tests On Mild Steel Zed-Angles

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel zeds.

1

8"

X

3"

X

3"

X

"

29.5

21.0

Bending tests satisfactory

2

" "

30.0

22.0

" "

3

" "

28.8

23.0

" "

4

" "

27.8

23.0

" "

5

" "

29.5

220

" "

6

" "

296

23.0

" "

7

" "

29.5

22.0

" "

8

" "

29.8

22.0

" "

9

6"

X

3"

X

3"

X

⅜"

30.0

20.0

" "

10

" "

29.6

23.0

" "

11

" "

28.9

21.0

" "

Table No. 10. Tests On Mild Steel Trough Flooring

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel trough flooring plates.

1

Specimens representing the material

28.6

27.0

Bending tests satisfactory

2

" "

28.8

24.0

" "

3

" "

28.3

28.0

" "

4

" "

28.7

26.0

" "

5

" "

30.0

29.0

" "

6

" "

29.2

27.0

" "

7

" "

28.9

31.0

" "

8

" "

28.7

28.0

" "

9

" "

28.8

30.0

' "

10

" "

28.7

26.0

" "

11

" "

28.4

24.0

" "

12

" "

28.5

27.0

" "

13

" "

30.1

27.0

" "

14

" "

29.6

25.0

" "

Table No. 11. Tests On Mild Steel Bound Bars

No.

of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel round bars.

1

6⅛" diameter

29.2

24.0

Bending tests satisfactory

2

5" "

29.4

22.0

" "

3

5" "

28.4

26.0

" "

4

" "

27.3

26.0

" "

5

" "

28.0

25.0

" "

6

" "

29.7

24.0

" "

7

" "

28.4

26.0

" "

8

" "

273

26.0

" "

9

" "

28.0

25.0

" "

10

" "

29.7

24.0

" "

No.

of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel round bars.

11

4" diameter

28.4

26.0

Bending tests satisfactory

12

4 "

27.6

30.0

" "

13

" "

29.1

26.0

" "

14

" "

29.5

25.0

" "

15

" "

27.5

27.0

" "

16

" "

27.2

36.0

" "

17

" "

27.6

30.0

" "

18

4"

30.0

23.0

" "

19

3 " "

30.3

26.0

" "

20

" "

28.4

24.0

" "

21

" "

28.8

25.0

" "

22

3 " "

28.4

28.0

" "

23

3"

28.2

21.0

" "

24

3" "

28.1

24.0

" "

25

" "

31.0

15.0

" "

26

" "

28.2

22.0

Further tests from the bars from which No. 25 was taken

27

" "

28.6

23.0

28

" "

27.8

21.5

29

" "

29.3

24.0

Bending tests satisfactory

30

" "

29.1

25.0

" "

31

" "

30.0

27.0

″ "

32

" "

29.8

28.0

" "

33

3" "

28.6

26.0

" "

34

" "

29.3

27.0

" "

35

" "

29.2

28.0

" "

36

" "

30.0

26.0

" "

37

" "

29.1

26.0

" "

38

" "

30.0

25.0

" "

39

" "

29.7

28.0

" "

40

" "

29.3

21.0

" "

41

" "

28.8

27.0

" "

42

" "

30.0

25.0

" "

43

" "

28.7

27.0

" "

44

2 " "

28.8

30.0

" "

45

" "

29.1

31.0

" "

46

" "

29.3

28.0

" "

47

" "

29.0

26.0

" "

48

" "

29.2

27.0

" "

49

" "

28.9

28.0

" "

50

2⅝" "

29.4

31.0

" "

51

2" "

28.2

24.0

" "

52

" "

27.9

25.5

" "

53

" "

29.0

25.0

" "

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel round bars.

54

2" diameter

27.9

24.0

Bending tests satisfactory

55

" "

28.1

25.0

" "

56

" "

28.9

26.0

Tests Nos. 51 to 65 inclusive are the tests for the tie rods shown in Figs. 369-372. See also test No. 67.

57

" "

28.5

22.0

58

" "

30.5

22.0

59

" "

28.4

25.0

60

" "

28.4

25.0

61

" "

27.3

23.0

Bending tests satisfactory

62

" "

27.0

23.0

" "

63

" "

26.6

32.0

" "

64

" "

26.5

31.0

" "

65

" "

27.2

32.0

" "

66

2" „

29.8

26.0

" "

67

2" "

29.7

27.0

" "

68

1" "

29.0

26.0

" "

69

" "

29.8

26.0

" "

70

" "

29.7

27.0

" "

71

" "

29.5

27.0

" "

72

" "

28.4

26.0

" "

73

1" "

29.3

23.0

" "

74

1⅜" "

28.8

23.0

" "

75

" "

30.0

24.0

" "

76

1" "

27.9

31.0

" "

77

⅞" "

26.8

28.0

" "

78

" "

27.1

32.0

" "

Table No. 12. Tests On Mild Steel Rectangular Bars

No.

of test

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel rectangular bars.

1

7"

X

4" rectangular

28.0

29.0

Bending tests satisfactory

2

" "

28.2

31.0

" "

3

" "

28.3

30.0

" "

4

" "

28.8

31.0

" "

No.

of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel rectangular bars.

5

7"

X

4 rectangular

28.3

32.0

Bending tests satisfactory

6

6"

X

4" "

28.7

28.0

" "

7

" "

27.7

28.0

" "

8

4" square

27.9

28.0

" "

9

4" square

30.0

28.0

" "

10

"

27.7

24.0

" "

11

"

27.0

20.0

" "

12

5"

X

2⅛"

27.7

31.0

" "

13

3" square

29.7

26.0

" "

14

3" square

28.4

22.5

" "

15

"

27.9

23.0

" "

16

"

27.0

22.5

" "

17

"

29.8

27.0

" "

18

3" square

29.7

26.0

" "

19

2" square

29.4

24.0

" "

20

"

29.6

22.0

" "

21

2 square

29.5

27.0

" "

22

3" X I"

28.0

22.0

" "

23

2" square

29.5

26.0

" "

24

"

29.8

25.0

" "

25

2" square

27.5

27.0

" "

26

1" square

26.4

30.0

" "

27

3"

X

1"

28.0

27.0

" "

Table No. 13. Tests On Mild Steel Plates

No.

of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel plates, tested lengthways of the plate.

1

" thick

27.1

29.0

Bending tests satisfactory

2

"

27.1

34.0

" "

3

"

27.6

29.0

" "

4

"

27.5

29.0

" "

5

"

26.9

27.0

" "

No.

of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel plates, tested lengthways of the plate.

6

" thick

28.0

28.0

Bending tests satisfactory

7

"

28.3

31.0

" "

8

⅝" thick

29.3

27.0

" "

9

" "

28.5

27.0

" "

10

"

27.4

26.0

" "

11

"

28.3

29.0

" "

12

"

28.0

29.0

" "

13

"

29.2

29.0

" "

14

"

28.1

33.0

" "

15

"

26.6

32.0

" "

16

"

27.8

31.0

" "

17

"

28.7

27.0

" "

18

"

28.1

30.0

" "

19

"

27.4

26.0

" "

20

"

27.7

30.0

" "

21

" thick

29.5

26.0

" "

22

"

26.9

26.0

" "

23

"

28.0

27.0

" "

24

"

29.1

27.0

" "

25

"

28.3

27.0

" "

26

"

29.1

29.0

" "

27

"

28.7

28.0

" "

28

"

29.6

25.0

" "

29

"

27.8

32.0

" "

30

"

27.7

26.0

" "

Chequer or ribbed plates for flooring

" thick

31

28.6

31.0

" "

32

"

28.4

27.0

" "

33

"

30.7

26.0

" "

34

"

29.4

30.0

" "

35

"

29.1

26.0

" "

36

"

28.1

26.0

" "

37

"

29.0

28.0

" "

38

⅜" thick

28.2

27.0

" "

39

"

29.4

26.0

" "

40

"

26.6

31.0

" "

41

"

28.6

28.0

" "

42

"

28.2

23.0

" "

43

"

28.5

27.0

" "

44

"

28.3

26.0

" "

45

"

28.4

24.0

" "

No.

of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel plates, tested cross ways of the plate.

Specimens Nos. 46 to 78 are from similar plates to those represented by Nos. 1 to 30.

46

" thick

28.0

25.0

Bending tests satisfactory

47

"

281

27.0

" "

48

"

27.8

29.0

" "

49

"

27.0

30.0

" "

50

"

27.9

24.0

" "

51

⅝" thick

28.7

26.0

" "

52

"

28.2

26.0

" "

53

"

28.7

26.0

" "

54

"

28.3

26.0

" "

55

"

28.6

29.0

" "

56

"

28.0

29.0

" "

57

"

26.7

25.0

" "

58

"

27.3

28.0

" "

59

"

28.0

26.0

" "

60

"

27.3

25.0

" "

61

"

28.2

26.0

" "

62

" thick

27.0

20.0

" "

63

"

27.4

28.0

" "

64

"

29.1

27.0

" "

65

"

29.3

24.0

" "

66

"

29.5

25.0

" "

67

"

27.8

26.0

" "

68

"

28.2

270

" "

69

"

29.3

24.0

" "

70

"

26.2

26.0

" "

71

"

27.7

26.0

" "

72

"

28.3

29.0

" "

73

"

29.3

24.0

" "

74

"

26.2

26.0

" "

75

"

27.7

26.0

" "

76

"

28.3

29.0

" "

77

"

27.8

27.0

" "

78

"

29.0

25.0

" "

79

⅜" thick

28.5

25.0

" "

80

"

30.1

27.0

" "

81

"

27.2

26.0

" "

82

"

28.6

25.0

" "

83

"

27.9

25.0

" "

84

"

29.1

26.0

" "

85

"

29.2

22.0

" "

86

"

27.9

22.0

" "

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq.inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel plates, tested crossways of the plate.

87

⅜" thick

28.5

250

Bending tests satisfactory

88

"

28.8

26.0.

" "

89

"

28.5

25.0

" "

90

"

30.1

27.0

" "

91

5/16" thick

28.4

24.0

" "

92

"

28.9

25.0

" "

93

"

28.4

26.0

" "

94

"

28.7

250

" "

The following tests represent mild steel plates of various thicknesses, from⅜ " to ", tested lengthways and crossways

95

Mild steel plates

28.4

25.0

Tested lengthways

96

" "

28.7

23.0

„ crossways

97

" "

29.4

24.0

„ lengthways

98

" "

29.6

25.0

„ crossways

99

" "

27.8

28.0

„ lengthways

100

" "

28.0

27.0

„ crossways

101

" "

29.1

28.0

„ lengthways

102

" "

29.2.

27.0

„ crossways

103

" "

29.8

30.0

„ lengthways

104

" "

29.8

26.0

„ crossways

105

" "

28.8

29.0

„ lengthways

106

" "

29.1

25.0

„ crossways

107

" "

28.6

26.0

„ lengthways

108

" "

28.6

27.0

„ crossways

109

" "

29.1

24.0

„ lengthways

110

" "

29.7

230

„ crossways

111

" "

29.0

28.0

„ lengthways

112

" "

29.2

27.0

„ crossways

113

" "

29.0

26.0

„ lengthways

114

" "

29.9

27.0

„ crossways

115

" "

28.6

30.0

„ lengthways

116

" "

28.9

26.0

„ crossways

117

" "

28.8

28.0

„ lengthways

118

" "

28.7

25.0

„ crossways

119

" "

29.3

27.0

„ lengthways

120

" "

29.3

26.0

„ crossways

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

121

Mild steel plates.

29.4

25.0

Tested lengthways

122

" "

29.0

25.0

" crossways

123

" "

28.6

26.0

„ lengthways

124

" "

28.7

24.0

„ crossways

125

" "

27.8

26.0

„ lengthways

126

" "

27.8

24.0

„ crossways

127

" "

29.8

25.0

„ lengthways

128

" "

29.3

24.0

„ crossways

129

" "

28.3

26.0

„ lengthways

130

" "

28.9

27.0

,, crossways

131

" "

28.6

28.0

„ lengthways

132

" "

28.6

25.0

„ crossways

133

' "

288

26.0

,, lengthways

134

" "

28.7

22.0

„ crossways

135

" "

29.1

28.0

„ lengthways

136

" "

29.3

23.0

„ crossways

137

" "

28.2

28.0

„ lengthways

138

" "

28.6

24.0

„ crossways

139

" "

29.5

26.0

„ lengthways

140

" "

29.3

27.0

„ crossways

141

" "

29.4

25.0

„ lengthways

142

" "

29-3.

23.0

„ crossways

143

" "

27.8

27.0

„ lengthways

144

" "

28.0

28.0

„ crossways

145

" "

28.2

30.0

„ lengthways

146

" "

27.7

23.0

„ crossways

147

" "

28.7

29.0

„ lengthways

148

" "

29.1

28.0

„ crossways

149

" "

29.0

28.0

„ lengthways

150

" "

29.1

27.0

„ crossways

151

" "

28.8

28.0

„ lengthways

152

" "

29.1

24.0

„ crossways

153

" "

29.0

26.0

„ lengthways

154

" "

29.0

25.0

„ crossways

155

" "

28.4

26.0

„ lengthways

156

" "

28.8

23.0

„ crossways

157

" "

29.7

30.0

„ lengthways

158

" "

29.4

24.0

„ crossways

159

" "

29.4

25.0

„ lengthways

160

" "

29.5

26.0

„ crossways

161

" "

29.2

26.0

„ lengthways

162

" "

29.5

27.0.

„ crossways

163

" "

28.6

25.0

„ lengthways

164

" "

28.8

23.0

„ crossways

165

" "

29.4

25.0

„ lengthways

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in

8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

166

Mild steel plates.

29.4

25.0

Tested crossways

167

" "

29.5

23.0

„ lengthways

168

" "

29.6

25.0

„ crossways

169

" "

28.3

30.0

„ lengthways

170

" "

28.6

28.0

„ crossways

171

" "

28.9

27.0

„ lengthways

172

" "

28.8

24.0

„ crossways

173

" "

29.4

26.0

„ lengthways

174

" "

29.2

26.0

„ crossways

175

" "

28.3

29.0

„ lengthways

176

" "

28.4

28.0

„ crossways

177

" "

29.0

25.0

„ lengthways

178

" "

29.1

27.0

„ crossways

179

" "

29.2

26.0

„ lengthways

180

" "

29.2

25.0

„ crossways

Table No. 14. Tests On Mild Rivet Steel

No.

of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq.inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild rivet steel.

1

⅞" diameter

26.4

30.0

Bending tests satisfactory

2

"

27.5

27.0

" "

3

"

26.1

27.3

" "

4

"

26.1

28.4

For the chemical analysis of Test No. 4, see p. 52

5

"

26.3

28.7

Bending tests satisfactory

6

"

27.2

30.0

" "

7

"

270

31.0

" "

8

"

27.7

28.0

" "

9

"

27.8

28.0

" "

10

"

27.2

21.0

" "

11

"

28.2

29.8

" "

12

"

28.9

28.5

" "

13

"

28.4

28.9

" "

No.

of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild rivet steel.

33.5

31.0

33.0

34.7

The tensile strength of this rivet steel is slightly below the specified minimum, but in view of the good elongation and the satisfactory shop cold and temper tests the rivets were accepted

14

⅞" and " diameter

25.1

15

"

25.6

16

"

24.8

17

"

26.2

18

"

29.6

31.0

Bending tests satisfactory

19

"

29.5

31.0

" "

20

" diameter

25.8

27.5

" "

21

"

27.4

35.0

" "

22

"

28.2

30.0

" "

23

⅝" diameter

27.3

27.0

" "

24

"

28.0

26.0

" "

25.5

27.0

25.5

25.0

25.8

The tensile strength of Tests Nos. 25 to 29 is somewhat high, but the elongation is good, and the large number of mechanical tests (bending, flattening down, etc.) made, showed the metal to be of high class quality, and the rivets were accepted

25

"

31.2

26

"

31.3

27

"

31.5

28

"

32.5

29

"

31.6

30

Pan-head rivets

26.6

25.0

Bending tests satisfactory

31

Snap-head rivets

27.8

20.0

" "

32

"

29.9

24.0

" "

33

"

30.0

23.0

" "

34

"

24.6

25.0

" "

35 36

Steel rivets (various)

25.3

31.0

Flattening and bending (hot and cold) tests gave satisfactory results

" "

25.1

32.0

37

" "

26.4

30.0

38

" "

25.7

31.0

39

Steel rivets 31/31" diam.

29.6

28.0

Bending tests satisfactory

40

" "

30.0

32.0

" "

41

" "

29.8

31.0

" "

42

27/32" diam.

29.6

32.0

" "

43

" "

30.0

32.0

" "

44

" "

29.8

27.0

" "

45

" "

29.2

34.0

" "

46

" 23/32" diam.

28.7

31.0

" "

47

" "

29.2

32.0

" "

48

" "

28.0

32.0

" "

Table No. 15. Tests On Mild Steel For Bolts And Nuts

No.

of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate elongation in 8 inches.

Per cent.

Remarks.

1

Bolt and nut steel.

29.4

25.0

Bending tests satisfactory

2

" "

29.1

30.0

" "

3

" "

28.4

32.0

" "

4

" "

28.9

28.0

" "

5

" "

27.0

31.0

" "

6

" "

29.1

30.0

" "

7

" "

26.6

26.0

" "

8

" "

29.4

25.0

" "

9

" "

29.1

30.0

" "

10

" "

26.6

26.0

" "

11

" "

26.9

30.0

" "

12

" "

273

28.0

" "

13

" "

25.7

29.0

" "

14

" "

26.1

27.0

" "

15

" "

29.9

27.0

" "

16

" "

27.3

29.0

" "

17

" "

27.7

31.0

" "

18

" "

28.3

31.0

" "

Table No. 16. Tests On Mild Steel Forgings And Other Special Steels

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate extension. Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel forgings.

1

Shackles

30.6

35.0

Extension on 2 inches

2

"

31.4

37.0

" " "

3

"

31.7

22.5

" 8 "

4

"

31.6

29.0

" 4 "

5

"

31.6

20.0

" 8 „

6

Lifting bolts

30.8

36.0

" 2 „

7

" "

29.3

23.0

" 4 "

No. of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate extension.

Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel forgings.

8

Crossheads

28.8

41.0

Extension on 2 inches

9

"

28.9

23.5

" 8 „

10

Lifting beams

31.6

37.0

" 2 „

11

" "

30.9

37.0

" " "

12

" "

31.5

23.5

" 4 "

13

Crane post

26.7

23.5

" 8 "

14

" "

29.5

26.0

" " "

15

" "

25-4.

29.6

" " "

16

Connecting rod

27.9

32.0

" 2 "

17

Sprocket wheel spindles

26.3

35.0

" 3 „

For details of this wheel, see Figs. 413-416.

18

Blooms 8" square

27.8

26.0

Extension on 8 inches

X

10' 0" and 7"

square

X

14'6"

19

Engine forgings

28.4

26.0

" " "

20

" "

28.4

26.0

" " "

21

" "

28.5

28.0

" " "

22

" "

28.5

30.0

" ' "

23

" "

28.3

27.0

' " "

24

" "

28.4

28.0

" ' '

25

" "

29.9

25.0

" " "

26

" "

28.9

26.0

" " "

27

" "

27.2

23.0

" " "

28

" "

30.0

25.0

" " "

29

" "

27.3

28.0

" " "

30

" "

27.9

27.0

' " "

31

Piston-rod forgings

28.5

24.0

" " "

32

" "

27.4

26.0

" " "

33

" "

28.5

25.0

" " "

34

Shaft forging

27.6

28.0

" " "

35

Forged pins

26.2

29.0

' ' "

36

" "

26..3

29.0

' " "

37

Steel tyres and axles

36.0

30.0

Bending tests cold and tempered satisfactory

38

" "

36.5

28.0

" " "

39

" "

39.0

28.0

" " "

40

" "

38.0

29.0

" " "

41

" "

39.6

27.0

" " "

42

" "

40.0

25.0

" " "

43

Steel tyres

44.2

26.0

20.0

Extension taken on 3" for tests 37 to 42 inclusive, and on 2" for tests 43 to 52 inclusive

44

"

44.1

45

Steel crane posts

30.6

35.0

Bending tests satisfactory

No.

of test.

Description of section tested.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Ultimate extension. Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel forgings.

46

Steel crane posts

32.2

29.0

Bending tests satisfactory

47

" "

32.8

29.0

" "

48

" "

31.8

33.0

" "

49

" "

32.8

32.0

" "

50

" "

32.2

35.0

" "

51

„ "

36.8

20.0

" "

52

" "

33.4

31.0

" "

No. 52 is a re-test of No.

51

53

Spring steel 3"

X

⅜"

451

21.0

Not considered satisfactory.

54

" "

52.9

13.0

Replace of No. 53. Extension taken on 6" for Nos. 53, 54

Note

Tests Nos. 1 to 12 represent material used in the construction of plant for marine works, such as Titans or Goliahs, for the handling of large concrete blocks, etc.

Table No. 17. Tests On Mild Steel For Special Purposes

No.

of test.

Description of material.

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq.inch.

Elongation in 8 inches. Per cent.

Remarks.

Mild steel for special purposes.

1

Hot drawn weldless steel hexagonal couplings for tie bolts (screwed right and left-handed)

26.42

22.0

For the details of these couplings, see Figs. Nos. 369, 370.

2

26.27

24.5

3

26.00

23.0

4

27.05

195

Steel bars for nuts for bolts.

o

2" diameter

28.9

28.0

6

2⅜" "

29.9

28.0

7

2" "

26.2

24.0

No.

of test.

Description of materials-

Ultimate tensile strength. Tons per sq. inch.

Elongation in 8 inches. Per cent.

Remarks.

Steel flats for links for hauling chains.

8

6

X

⅞"

X

12' 1"

31.2

230

Bending tests satisfactory. This steel was specified to have an ultimate tensile resistance of not less than 30 or more than 33 tons per square inch, with 20 per cent.

extension in 8 inches. For the details of the links of the chain made from this steel, see Figs. 410, 411, 422, 423. See also Chemical Analysis, No. 19, p. 54.

9

" "

31.5

23.0

10

" "

31.9

24.0

11

" "

31.5

24.0

12

" "

31.1

25.0

13

" "

31.2

22.0

14

" "

32.7

21.0

15

" "

32.5

22.0

16

" "

31.0

24.0

17

" "

31.0

23.0

18

" "

31.0

24.0

19

" "

31.2

22.0

20

" "

31.9

20.0

21

" "

32.2

24.0

22

" "

31.9

26.0

23

" "

31.9

22.0

24

Flanged nuts for chains

28.9

28.0

31.0

Stamped out under the hammer. See Figs. 411, 423.

25

" "

27.0

26

Flanged nuts for chains

30.4

31.0

Bending tests satisfactory

27

" "

30.4

30.0

" "

28

" "

28.9

28.0

" "

29

Lewis bolts ⅞"

29.1

30.0

" "

30

" "

26.6

26.0

" "

31

" 1

28.4

32.0

" "

32

Cotter bolts 2"

291

30.0

" "

It is apparent from a consideration of the foregoing results, and from numberless experiments of a similar class which might be quoted, that the present-day processes of steel-making have resulted, especially so far as open-hearth steel is concerned, in a material remarkable for its uniformity of quality, its high tensile resistance, and for the excellent elongation shown by the tests. The highest quality of wrought-iron bar now obtainable may perhaps compare with mild steel favourably as regards ultimate extension, when it has been obtained from the best makers, but will be found to fall considerably below steel in ultimate tensile resistance, while inferior brands of wrought iron can offer no such comparison.

An instance of the great advance shown by the newer material may be found in the tests of plates. In the old days the tensile resistance of wrought-iron plates across the grain was considerably below that lengthways of the grain, while the ultimate extension crossways frequently did not exceed 5 per cent.; a fact which had to be carefully borne in mind in the use of wrought-iron plate across the grain. The results of the tests on mild steel plates are given in the foregoing table, No. 13. It will there be seen that the average ultimate tensile strength of plates tested lengthways, Tests Nos. 1 to 45, is 28.07 tons per square inch, while the same resistance of plates tested crossways, Tests Nos. 46 to 94, is 28.03 tons per square inch.

The average ultimate extension lengthways is 28.5 per cent, in 8 inches, and crossways is 26'23 per cent., showing a slight difference in extension in favour of plates tested lengthways.

Tests Nos. 95 to 180 are the results on plates tested lengthways and crossways under a different contract, but a comparison of the averages gives a similar result to the foregoing series.

The average ultimate tensile strength tested lengthways is 28.82 tons per square inch, and tested crossways is 28.93. The average ultimate elongation in 8 inches, tested lengthways, is 27'00 per cent., tested crossways is 25.28.

A third series of fifty-eight experiments, representing some 200 tons of plates from f inch to inch thick, give results in accordance with the foregoing. The ultimate tensile resistance lengthways is 28.24 tons per square inch, with an ultimate extension in 8 inches of 28.6 per cent. Tested crossways, the results are 28.05 tons per square inch and 26.7 per cent, extension.

All three series exhibit a practical uniformity in ultimate tensile strength, whether tested lengthways or crossways, and a difference of from 7 to 9 per cent, in the ultimate extension in favour of the lengthways tests.