This section is from the book "Text-Book On Domestic Art", by Carrie Crane Ingalls. Also available from Amazon: Textbook On Domestic Art: With Illustrations And Drafts.
Blind or slip stitch
Over and over
Long and short baste
Running or gathering
Three running and one back stitch tear into a dozen pieces each 9x12, - three pieces on the width and four on the length.
Half back stitch
Whole back stitch
Tear a piece of cotton cloth (Fruit of the Loom is good) into strips 9 inches long on the warp or straight, and 12 inches on the woof or width. One yard of cloth 36 inches wide will
This sampler is worked in order to show all the plain stitches included in sewing. They are the fundamental ones, but variations, as the baste, running or back stitches, may be made. By using colors contrasting with the background the stitches will show to better advantage.
Commence at the right end and on right side of goods (leaving knot on wrong side). Work from left to right. Turn a 1-inch hem on the two short ends and one long side.
A hem is a double fold of cloth on the edge of the material and varies in width from 1/8 to 6 or more inches, the first turn being from 1/16 to 1/2 inch according to thickness of material or its tendency to ravel. Crease the first turn sharply and evenly by laying on a flat surface and creasing with thumb of right hand. The second turn or crease is made the desired width of hem, so it is especially important that the first crease is straight and even. For a guide, use a rule or a strip of cardboard cut out the correct width. Before basting this hem the corners should be mitered.
To miter is to fold the corners of material so the sides will join on the diagonal, instead of straight - a neater way of finishing corners than the folded hems. There are two ways of mitering: cutting away the goods left after folding, or turning all under, the latter leaving the corner firmer and less liable to lose its shape. Fig. 1. After the hem has been creased on three sides of sampler see that the corners are also sharply creased. Then unfold the first crease and make a diagonal crease at the point where the warp and woof sides come together on the corners. See Fig. 2. If turned accurately the creases will match. Refold as for hem with the diagonal piece turned in, this join making a diagonal fold. This is sewed together with a very fine, straight over and over stitch, catching only the edge of fold and not that which is tucked under. Baste lower edge of hem to the goods and baste also the mitered corners on each edge, to keep them in place. Next overcast the long raw edge.
Overcasting is an over and over, slant stitch used to protect raw edges from fraying. Start at right corner, with knot on under side, pulling needle thru on right side, deep enough only to prevent raveling. Repeat with even stitches (1/16 of an inch deep). This stitch slants from right to left and is one of the most difficult to make uniform.
To make a hemming stitch, start at the right side on the edge, hiding the knot under the hem, and take up one or two threads of the goods, just catching it to the edge of the fold or hem. Slant the needle toward the shoulder and hold hem at lower edge over the first finger of the left hand, with the middle finger over the goods to hold the goods firm. The stitches should be small and even with a slanting stitch on the right and a straight stitch on the wrong side. Hem the two short sides. On the other long side which has been turned for a hem make the blind or slip stitch, so called because the thread slips thru the fold in the hem and is invisible.
The blind or slip stitch is started similar to the hemming stitch, catching a few threads of the goods at the edge of the fold and carrying the needle into the hem just above the edge, so the stitch can not be seen, and running or slipping it thru the hem or fold about 1/4 of an inch. It shows no stitch on the right side, but resembles hemming on the wrong side, with stitches farther apart.
The over and over stitch is a very fine horizontal stitch used to join two turned-in edges, folds or selvages. Patchwork is an example. One-half inch below the hem at the top of sampler crease a line by folding it to right side and creasing sharply. This crease is a guide. Start all the plain stitches at the right of sampler near overcast edge on creased line, 1/2 inch apart.
Even baste stitch has the same length of stitch on both right and wrong sides and should be about 3/8 inch long. It is used to join two or more thicknesses of material together, preparatory to machine or fine hand sewing.
Long baste stitch has one long stitch on right side and one short stitch on wrong side. It is used as a guide stitch or for joining cloth.
Long and short baste stitch has one long stitch on right side, one short stitch on wrong side, a short stitch on right side and another short stitch on wrong side. This is used in joining long seams and is a firmer stitch than the long baste.
The tailor's baste has a slant thread, starting at base of goods or creased line, with another creased line 3/4 inch below. It slants toward the left on the right side, making a straight stitch on wrong side. The tailor's baste is used to join a number of thicknesses of cloth, particularly padding. Strong thread and a coarse needle are needed. There are many variations of this stitch in length and slant.
Running stitch is a firm, even stitch on both right and wrong sides. It is used for gathering or joining two or more pieces of material together. These stitches are made by movement of the wrist.
Three running stitches and one back stitch.