This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this spurge is cultivated ground, waste places, fields. It is nowhere native. The habit is erect. The plant is more or less bluish-green. The stems are simple or 3-fid below. The plant is smooth, rarely hairy. The leaves are narrowly inversely ovate, inversely heart-shaped, coarsely toothed above the middle, more or less stalked, sometimes wedge-shaped, with a rounded tip, membranous, the lower smaller. The bracts are the same, the upper ovate to heart-shaped. The glands of the involucre are transversely oval, rounded, yellow. The capsule is smooth. The flowerheads form an umbel of 5, 3-fid, forked rays. The seeds are netted, rough, deeply-pitted, brown. The plant is 6-18 in. high, flowering from June to October, and is a herbaceous annual.
The habitat of this plant is fields, cornfields, and waste places, being cultivated. It has not been found in native habitats. The plant is smooth or hairy. The habit is erect. The stems are stout, simple, with numerous, alternate, slender, ascending branches. The leaves are linear to oblong, or inversely ovate to lance-shaped, heart-shaped below, stalkless, spreading or bent back, acute, with small, coarse teeth above the middle. The flowerheads are in umbels of 3-5 rays, several times forked. The partial bracts are heart-shaped, short, broad, with a small point. The glands of the involucre are more or less round. There are 7-8 stamens in each involucre. The capsule is smooth, with small warts, which are hemispherical. The seeds are smooth, olive-brown, inversely ovate, shining". The seed-stalk is nearly kidney-shaped. The plant is 6-30 in. in height, flowering- from July to October, and is a herbaceous annual.
The habitat of this plant is plantations, and the plant is rare. The plant is naked below. The leaves are lance-shaped, with small teeth, woolly. The bracts are oval to oblong, the tertiary bracts ovate, hairy. The flowerheads are in an umbel of 5 rays, 3-fid, and forked. The involucral glands are oval. The capsule is nearly smooth, woolly. The seeds are inversely ovate, minutely dotted, and with faint, netted bands. The plant is 1-3 ft. high, flowering in June and July, and is a herbaceous biennial.
The habitat of this species is waste places, cultivated ground. The habit is erect. The stem is simple, or thrice forked below. The plant is smooth, light-green. The leaves are round to inversely broadly ovate, entire, stalked, thin, the lower leaves more or less rounded. The leaf-stalks are short and slender. The flowerheads are in umbels of 3 repeatedly-forked rays. The bracts are ovate, blunt, with a short point. The involucral glands are 4, moon-shaped, long-horned, slender. The capsule is smooth, small, with keeled valves, thickened, and rough. The seeds are ovoid, deeply pitted, keeled on the dorsal side, whitish, 3-angled, with 2 furrows on the ventral side. The plant is 3-12 in. high, flowering from July to November, and is a herbaceous annual.
The habitat of this plant is cultivated ground, waste places, fields, gardens. The habit is erect. The plant is bright-green, smooth. The root is fibrous. The stem is branched. The leaves are membranous, oblong, ovate, lance-shaped, smooth, short-stalked. In the female plants the leaves are narrower, acute, heart-shaped or rounded below, shining, scalloped to coarsely toothed, fringed with hairs. The plant is dioecious or monoecious. The lemale flowers are in clusters, nearly stalkless, sometimes with a few male flowers. The styles are spreading, with the stigmatic surfaces on the front sides. The capsule is small, warted, roughly hairy. The seeds are brown, netted. The plant is 6-18 in. high, flowering from July to November, and is a herbaceous annual.