This section is from the book "British Wild Flowers - In Their Natural Haunts Vol5-6", by A. R. Horwood. Also available from Amazon: A British Wild Flowers In Their Natural Haunts.
The habitat of this species is dry banks, hedge-banks. The habit is erect. The stems are wavy, usually solitary or few from the root, with long, ascending branches. The leaves are dark-green, broadly ovate, long-stalked, scalloped, coarsely-toothed. The flowers are purplish or pink, with dark-purple markings in compound whorls, in few-flowered, slightly forked, one-sided cymes, the flowers at an angle with the stalks. The calyx is tubular, 2-lipped, bent on the stalk, the teeth having long bristles, the upper triangular, ascending, the lower twice as long, awl-like, the hairs on the throat not protruding. The middle lobe of the lower lip of the corolla is longest, and separated from the laterals. The flower-stalks are short, the flower-stalk of the cyme half as long as the primary partial stalk. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering from July to September, and is a herbaceous perennial.
Balm is found in waste places. The habit is erect. The stems are numerous. The leaves are ovate, scalloped to toothed, stalked, wrinkled above, acute, paler below, and are sweet-smelling. The flowers are white, with rose-red spots, in axillary one-sided whorls, shortly-stalked. There are small, oblong bracteoles. The calyx is bell-shaped, enlarged in front, 2-lipped, the upper lip flat, blunt, with 3 short, triangular, broad, bristle-like teeth, the lower having 2 lance - shaped, slender, straight teeth. The nutlets are smooth. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering from July to September, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is banks and waste places, hedges. The habit is erect. There is a stout rootstock. The stems are branched, leafy. The plant is hoary or downy. The leaves are ovate to heart-shaped, deeply-lobed below, cut, toothed, white and downy below, stalked, acute. The flowers are pale-blue, white, or with purple dots, in shortly-stalked, dense whorls, in cymes. The upper bracts are small. The upper whorls are stalkless, many, dense, in broad heads. The bracteoles are longer than the ultimate flower-stalks. The calyx is downy, with awl-like teeth, the upper longest. The tube of the corolla is curved. The stamens curve outwards at first. The nutlets are smooth, without hairs, granulate. The plant is 2-3 ft. high, flowering from July to September, and is a herbaceous perennial.
The habitat of this plant is downs on calcareous soils in England, where it is much grown in cottage gardens. It is frequently naturalized by roadsides and waste ground. The habit is erect. The plant is hoary or woolly. The rootstock is short and stout. The stems are stout, branched, leafy. The leaves are ovate, rounded, heart-shaped or wedge-shaped at the base, scalloped, narrowed into broad, long leaf-stalk, hoary and rough, woolly, leathery, wrinkled, with stout nerves, usually spreading from the leaf-stalk. The flowers are numerous, white, in dense whorls, axillary, flattened, softly hairy. The calyx is oblong. The teeth of the calyx are awl-like, spreading, hooked at the tip, spinous, woolly below, the upper half smooth. The tube of the corolla is slender, the upper lip long and divided into 2 nearly to the base. The plant is 1-2 ft. high, flowering from July to October, and is a herbaceous biennial or perennial.