In many areas there are tracts of sandy ground, derived from sandstones or sands, especially in the east and south of England, where the rainfall is small (under 25 in.). Reference has already been made to the probable occurrence of steppe conditions in this country following the glacial phase. The following plants are found on sandy areas at Mildenhall: Silene Otites, S. conica, Holosteum umbellatum (on walls, becoming rare), Medicago falcata, M. sylvestris, Artemisia campestris, Veronica verna, V. tri-phyllos, Muscari racemosum, Ornithogalum umbellatum, Carex ericetorum.

F. Arnold Lees, in a delightful old volume, was one of the first to recognize the importance of soils in determining the distribution of plants, and enumerates the following among others as being especially confined to sandy strata: Tilloea muscosa, Turritis glabra, Teesdalia nudicaulis, Silene anglica. Arenaria peploides (maritime), A. (Spergularia) rubra, Radiola millegrana, Erodium cicutarium, Tri-folium suffocatum, Jasione montana, Centun-culus minimus, I.amium amplexicaule, Scler-anthus annuus, Phleum arenarium (maritime), Festuca Myurus, Elymus arenarius, Carex arenaria (the last two maritime).

Sandy fields generally are characterized by such plants as Little Bur Medick, Rough Clover, Rigid Hare's Ear, French Cudweed, Cut-leaved Speedwell, Biennial Knawel. The connection between such tracts and rocks of a sandy composition is shown by the occurrence of plants common to both. Other plants found here are Silky Wind Grass, Silvery Hair Grass, Sand Fescue.