Introduction. - Process of Percolation or Displacement. - Shape of Percola-tors. - Danger of Tin Percolators. - Powdering Drugs. - Fineness of Pow-ders. - Preservation of Powders.- Packing of Percolator. - Commencement of Percolation. - Percolating Dregs of Tincture. - Experiments and Sug-gestionson Percolation. - Recovery of Menstruum. - The Process of Reper-colation. - Sectional Percolation. - Percolation Under Pressure. - Hot and Cold Percolating Process. - Evaporation. - Changes by Evaporation. - Consistence of Extracts. - Preservation of Extracts. - Modification of the Pharmaceutical Process of Percolation for Bottlers' Purposes. - Distilla -tion. - Digestion and Maceration. - Alcoholic Menstruums. - Strength of Tinctures. - Infusions. - Decoctions. - Hints for Laboratory Work. - Re-moving Odors from Bottles. - Cleaning Essential Oil Bottles. - Cleaning New Rubber Corks and Tubing. - Preserving Rubber Tubing. - Soften-ing Rubber Stoppers. - Perforating or Cutting Rubber Stoppers. - Adhesion of Glass Stoppers.

Introduction

Extracts, to be manufactured with any considerable saving to the bottler, require a great deal of experience and some apparatus. This has been recognized by many who prefer to purchase their supplies in this line than run the risk of spoiling both extract and beverage by crude ideas and appliances. The first stages' of the process present no great obstacles, but the correct manipulation of the article requires skill of a kind seldom found in the average bottling shop. Percolation is far from clear to the home-learned chemist, and many fine points of its practical application are unknown. Some directions and suggestions on the successful performance of the operation will be of benefit to the ambitious ones in the trade, and for that purpose this Chapter has been prepared.

It is safe to say that a systematically arranged bottler's laboratory is the exception, and not the rule. Unless this department is under the supervision of, not necessarily a thoroughly equipped chemist, but a man whose experience and methods are of a practical turn - that is to say, adapted particularly to the requirements of a bottling establishment - the work in hand is apt to suffer for want of attention to details. Take, for instance, the process of percolation: how few there be who can tell Why certain vessels should be used, and the general rule governing their employment ! Yet the strength of an extract derived from the crude drug depends upon the observance of such methods as have received the approval of skilled chemists.

For the benefit of those who strive to improve their knowledge in preparing their own extracts, and those who want to start in the undertaking and become more independent in their manufacture, and - as a standard rule or in case of need - want to prepare their own extracts, we append directions for percolation as given in the Pharmacopoeia and National Dispensatory and other sources, and also give our own suggestions with special regard to the demands for the manufacture of carbonated beverages.