General Requisites. - The Carbonator's Analytical Laboratory. - Tables of Weights and Measures. - British Weights and Measures. - Metric Weights and Measures. - Measures of Length. - Measures of Surface. - Relative Value of Apothecary's or Wine Measure, U. S., and Imperial Measure. - Value of Avoirdupois to Metric Weight. - Value of Metric to Avoirdupois Weight. - Value of United States to Metric Fluid Measure. - Value of Metric to United States Fluid Measure. - Approximate Measures. - At-mospheric and Water Pressure. - Explanation of Chemical Terms. - Stand-ard Solutions. - Hydrometers. - Using a Hydrometer. - Table Showing the Relation of the Degrees of Baume's Hydrometer to Specific Gravity as Adopted in the United States. - Table Showing the Relation of the Degrees of Baume's, Beck's and Cartier's Hydrometers to Specific Gravity, as employed in Germany and France. - Table Showing the Relation of the Degrees of Twaddel's Hydrometer to Specific Gravity, as Adopted in England. - Thermometers. - Comparative Table of Degrees of the Celsius, Reaumur and Fahrenheit Thermometers.

General Requisites

In designing the general ariangements of a factory, it is well to have a room set apart for the bottlers' laboratory. In this room should be prepared and stored the different flavorings or essences, and other chemical ingredients; also be kept the syrups when made and all necessary sundries, such as hydrometers, weights, measuring glasses, etc.

It is advisable to have this room up-stairs, so that the stock-jars can be kept in it, and the syrup drawn from them through tin pipes into the bottling-room below.

Experience has shown that the following instruments and utensils will be required:

Percolator, for making extracts by percolation. Distilling Apparatus, for preparing essences, essential oils, etc. Syrup-Boiler, for the preparation of simple syrups as directed later on, Graduates of various capacity; double graduates preferred. Hydrometer and hydrometer jars of various descriptions. Acidometer, for ascertaining the strength of acids.

Fig. 351.   Graduate

Fig. 351. - Graduate.

Fig. 352.   Mortar

Fig. 352. - Mortar.

Fig. 353.   Minim Glass

Fig. 353. - Minim Glass.

Alcoholometer, for ascertaining the strength of alcohol. Saccharometer, for ascertaining the strength of syrups. Thermometer, for ascertaining the temperature of liquids, etc. A Set of Glass Funnels, for nitrations. A Set of Beakers, for various purposes. Sets of Test Tubes and a Test-tube Rack, Casseroles and Evaporating Dishes, of porcelain. Water Baths, for evaporating purposes. Iron Supports, for funnels, dishes, lamps, etc. Alcohol Lamp, for laboratory work. Bun sen Burners, where gas is accessible. Crucibles, for examination work. Filtering Paper in all sizes, white preferred. Mortars of various sizes, with pestles of hard composition and iron. Tincture Press. Drug Mill. Felt Filtering Bags and Supports.

Spoons, Spatulas, etc.

Pure Distilled Water always to be preferred.

A Set of Various Dishes, Jars, and Bottles, for manipulating.