Messrs. Hayward Tyler & Co. in London, have a patented plan by which the water is completely purged from the atmospheric air and charged with gas continuously, with ease and simplicity. They supply the machines complete for making carbonated waters by this improved process, or adapt the plan to existing' machines. This system is also patented for exhausting the air from the bottles or syphons before admitting the water.

The annexed illustration (Fig. 89) shows the general plan of a complete machine as patented and exhibited by the manufacturers at the Paris Exhibition of 1878.

From the specification of the Letters Patent we extract the following:

"The main object of this invention is to manufacture carbonated waters by a continuous process in such a manner that the air naturally contained in the water used in the manufacture shall be withdrawn by suction during the process, and the water thus deprived of its air be forced into one or more condensers simultaneously with the carbonic acid or other gas.

"For the purpose of this invention the apparatus or machinery may be constructed as illustrated in the accompanying drawings, but it must be clearly understood that they are only examples, and that we may use any combination of known apparatus, whereby the process which we shall now particularly describe with reference to the drawings can be carried out. We employ, say, one reservoir wherein the water is deprived of its air (by any suitable means), and, say, one receiver or condenser into which the water thus prepared, together with the carbonic acid or other gas, is pumped or forced, or otherwise conveyed under any usual or required pressure, and by any convenient appliance". The appended illustration shows one of several arrangements. The action is as follows:

"The pump A withdraws the air from the upper part of the water reservoir W by the pipe a, and forces it out into the atmosphere, the partial vacuum created in the reservoir W at the same time continuously draws in a fresh supply of water by the pipe w from some suitably placed water supply or cistern. The pump B at the same time draws air-deprived water from the reservoir W by the pipe b, and gas from the gasometer by the pipe c', and forces gas and water into the condenser R by the pipe c. When drawing off the carbonated water made according to this invention for the purpose of charging ordinary bottles or syphon bottles therewith, we prefer to exhaust the air from the said bottles before filling them, and this we do by placing the bottles in connection with the vacuum in the water reservoir W through the syphon-filling or bottling cock or apparatus; or a special vacuum vessel may be used for the purpose, which vessel may be intermittently or continuously exhausted. We can also apply our new system of bottling to carbonated waters made according to heretofore known modes of manufacture".

Fig. 89.   General Plan oF Complete Machine

Fig. 89. - General Plan oF Complete Machine.

Fig. 90.   Carbonating Machine with Elevated Gasometer

Fig. 90. - Carbonating Machine with Elevated Gasometer.

Fig. 91.   Another view of Fig. 90, with Automatic Acid Feed Valve

Fig. 91. - Another view of Fig. 90, with Automatic Acid Feed Valve. A, Charging hopper; B, Discharge; C, Tap; D, Generator; E, Acid box; F, Acid valve; G, Acid pipe; H, Regulator; I, To pumps.

This apparatus (Fig. 90) is also of English manufacture, the principal parts being differently arranged than on those already shown. This machine and the one shown in the next illustration are manufactured by D. Rylands, London.

A is the generator, suspended in an iron support with shafting and pulleys; B is the gasometer, and C the pump with condenser D secured on top. This machinery is also adapted for large or small factories, and does not require much space. The principal parts of this apparatus are identical with those of the other continuous apparatus heretofore described; so is also the material it is made of.

The other illustration (Fig. 91) shows a larger set of the same arrangement with an automatic acid feed valve. The flasks in front of the gasometer are the purifiers. The movement of the gasometer regulates the flow of the acid. The apparatus is explained by the illustration.

This apparatus (Fig. 92), consisting of double pumps and cylinders, is to be an attachment to the larger sets of the afore-described carbonat-ing machinery. The cylinders are saturators without revolving agitators. Other "English Plans" are represented by the illustrations following.

Fig. 92.   Double Pumps and Saturators

Fig. 92. - Double Pumps and Saturators.

The next set of carbonating machinery (Fig. 93) is manufactured by Bratby & Hinchliffe, Manchester, Eng., and in principle and workman-ship is similar to other English apparatus already described.

The construction of the apparatus (Fig. 94) is explained by the illustration, and is similar to the others of the English plan. This machine has copper cylinders, the pumps (double action) are of gun-metal. The cylinders are fitted with gun-metal flanges and brazed together without the use of rivets, water- and pressure-gauges, safety valve; draw-off cocks are attached. The agitator-shaft is made of gun metal, thickly coated with tin, and runs right through the cylinder, and works in strong gun-metal stuffing-boxes, by a strap from the fly-wheel shaft.

The cylinder is thickly coated with tin inside, avoiding the danger of metallic contamination. The apparatus is manufactured in several designs, with copper or gun-metal cylinders.

The powerful double carbonating pumps (Fig. 95) are designed for a large, quick trade, where a large quantity of water is required to be turned out on the shortest notice. They work in connection with separate cylinders, generator and gasometer.