English Continuous System. - English Apparatus. - French Continuous Apparatus. - German Continuous Apparatus. - American Continuous Plan. - Matthews' Apparatus. - Puffer's Apparatus. - Tuft's Apparatus. - The Automatic Carbonator. - The Mondollott System. - Economizing Gas in Continuous Apparatus.

The English Continuous System

By thus naming a distinctive system of apparatus we are enabled to properly classify all makes of apparatus - those which partake of that style or system of machinery which is generally classed as English continuous, whether of French, German, English or American make.

English Apparatus

The following cuts represent the continuous apparatus, "Bramah's" system of the English improved plan, with globular and cylindrical condenser or saturator.

This kind of apparatus is manufactured in different sizes by Barnett & Foster, London, England, and comprises three essentials, of which the manufacturers furnish the following description, viz.:

1. "The Generator, in which the carbonates are mixed with the acid, producing carbonic acid gas; 2. The Gasometer, where the carbonic gas is stored; and 3. The Machine Proper, consisting of the pump and condenser, the former drawing gas on the one side and water on the other, and forcing it into the condenser or globe, where both the gas and water are incorporated together, ready for bottling by the various bottling machines.

"The Generator, a further drawing of which is shown at page 177, is a vessel composed of thick, hard-rolled lead, which metal is not chemically affected by the sulphuric acid used in connection with the carbonates for evolving carbonic acid gas, and with care will last many years. The top dome is connected to the body by means of rings, bolts, and nuts. The advantage of this is great, as in case the fans of the mixer require repairing it can with ease be disconnected, renewals or repairs effected, and reconnected by any ordinary hand. The mixer above mentioned consists of a stout copper rod (for strength) resting on a toe-piece inserted in the bottom of a generator and rising to the top, outside of which is a strong handle fitted with a ferrule; at bottom of this rod are fixed mixing fans, with holes in, made of strong gun-metal, the whole being thickly lined with tin; the rod passes through a suitable stuffing-box fixed in the top of dome. A gun-metal connection is also fixed for the acid supply pipe, which is a better arrangement than the swinging bottle, though we put this where desired.

"The method of supplying the sulphuric acid is by pouring it in at the leaden funnel. When the pipe becomes charged with sufficient acid it forms a stoppage which the gas cannot pass, as the pipe always remains filled to the height of the bent part or inlet on to" of generator; whatever amount of acid is afterwards poured in at the funnel will be the exact amount that goes into the generator. The improvement effected by this arrangement is obvious, for should the pipe leading from the generator become clogged up and not allow the gas to pass freely, instead of straining the generator or the pipe of gasometer the acid is forced up the syphon pipe, strikes against the top of the box, and afterwards finds its level, when the undue pressure has been relieved from the generator, by the gas flowing into the gasometer. There being no wear, it will last an unlimited time.

Fig. 59. English Carbonating Apparatus

Fig. 59. English Carbonating Apparatus.

" On the reverse side to where the above is fixed is the connection for outlet pipe from generator to gasometer. This pipe is of stout lead, sufficiently large to allow free vent. It has a strong cap and lining of gun-metal at each end, which are easily screwed or unscrewed from the connections fixed in generator and gasometer. It is here that our Improved Purifier should be fixed, and for the small increase in the cost of the complete apparatus it renders the plant more perfect. The inlet for the supply of the carbonates is on the top dome, and consists of a large cap with screw and square fitting outside for tightening or unscrewing; at the bottom is the outlet for the killed carbonates or sulphate of lime. The carbonate having been extracted from it, it becomes a thick battery substance; we therefore have designed an outlet for discharging this gradually by a sliding valve, which answers the purpose admirably.

Fig. 60.   Generator and Purifier

Fig. 60. - Generator and Purifier.

"This generator may be fixed on a wooden stand or brickwork, but where the purifier is used a cast-iron galvanized stand, Fig. 60, is about the best arrangement. The object of the purifier is to prevent the possibility of splashings from the whiting or other carbonate being forced into the gasometer, and at the same time to more fully wash the gas. We find from experience that one purifier is amply sufficient to eliminate any impurities that are likely to pass. Too much washing detracts from that sharpness and pungency which is the test of good aerated waters.

"The gasometer is a stout oak tub, of sufficient size and thickness, encircled by a series of galvanized iron hoops, also a bell made of stout sheet copper, well hammered to give it hardness. The inside of this is thickly coated with pure tin; at the bottom edge is run a thick rim; inside of this is a stout copper wire or rod, which gives it greater strength.

In the larger size bells we put a strengthening rib, also upon the inner side about half-way up, and also strengthening pieces on the dome or crown. In the centre of this dome is screwed a cock with outlet through the plug, the object of which is, that when the gas is first made, the air contained in the gasometer can be blown out through it. It has also a ring at its upper end, through which the cord and weight run over the pulleys, as shown. These pulleys, cord, weight, etc., are included with the machines.