This section is from the book "A Treatise On Beverages or The Complete Practical Bottler", by Charles Herman Sulz. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Beverages.
"Fig. 136 shows machine No. 0 complete. D is the outer and C the inner cylinder of the generator previously described. G G' are glass purifiers into which the gas passes from the generator. S, the condenser, in which the water is impregnated with the carbonic acid gas, is of two gallons capacity. I is the water tank fitted with glass ball-cock, affording a constant supply of water for aeration. P is a pump for forcing the filtered water from the tank, and the gas from the purifiers into the condenser. A is a fly-wheel, with handle E, for working the machine by hand, g g' are cog-wheels, the upper one of which is fixed to the spindle of an agitator in the condenser, which, by its rapid motion, facilitates the complete saturation of water with the gas. n n' are water gauges, the one indicating the height of water in the condenser, and the other that of the acid solution in the cylinder D. m is a pressure gauge for denoting the pressure in the condenser, e is a distributing tap for regulating or varying the relative proportions of gas and water forced by the pump into the condenser, s is a safety valve attached to the condenser, and so constructed as to be easily adjusted to any pressure required.
"Description of the mode in which No. 0 machine operates: - A given weight of granulated bicarbonate of soda is introduced into the cylinder C, through the feed tube B, which is then securely closed. The outer cylinder D is filled nearly to the top with water, to which is added a given volume of sulphuric acid. The solution flows by its own gravity through the holes a a into the cylinder C, but is prevented by the pressure of air therein from rising to the level of the soda. The machine having been set in motion, the air or gas in cylinder 0 is drawn off through the pipe b, and, the back pressure being thus removed, the acid solution rises up to the tube t, and, passing through the holes pierced in its circumference, comes in contact with the bicarbonate of soda, upon which a rapid generation of carbonic acid gas immediately takes place. This restores for a moment the back pressure, forces down the solution from contact with the soda, and, for that instant, stops the generation of gas.
"But as at each stroke of the pump the gas is withdrawn from the cylinder, the fluid again rises to contact with the soda, and a further generation of gas takes place. The pressure of the gas is thus made to regulate with the greatest nicety the rate of its own production. The gas passes from the cylinder, through the tube b, into the purifiers G G, where it is divested of all impurities. It is drawn thence by the action of the pump and forced into the condenser, together with the water to be aerated, which is drawn from the tank I. The combination of the two is effected by the high pressure maintained in the condenser, assisted by the motion of the agitator. The carbonated water then passes through the tube b b to the bottling machine.
"It will be noticed that the production of gas is regulated automatically and at a uniform rate by the simple but effective means described. The process continues while the machine is in motion, until the materials are exhausted. The rate of production being regulated with precision and limited to the exact quantity required, no dangerous accumulation of gas can possibly take place, and the degree of attention and skilled labor required for working the mechine is reduced to a minimum".
The producing capacity of machine No. 0 is given as being 300 syphons or 75 dozen bottles daily. It is especially constructed for the use of granulated bicarbonate of soda in the generation of the gas. The proportions of materials used are 4 1/2 lbs. of the bicarbonate, and 4 1/2 lbs. of sulphuric acid (before dilution) for each 300 bottles. Machines Nos. 1 and 2 are constructed for the use of whiting, or other similar substances, in the generation of the gas. The producing capacity is given as follows: No.
1, 600 syphons or 150 dozen bottles daily; No.
2, 1200 syphons or 300 dozen bottles daily. The proportions of materials used are about 5 1/2 lbs. of whiting, and 5 1/2 lbs. of sulphuric acid for each 300 bottles.
"This apparatus, Fig. 138, consists of a pair of strong vessels of copper, lined with about a quarter of an inch of pure lead, which are securely fixed on a strong cast-iron stand, so as to form one machine. They work alternately, the one being charged while the other is working; all the gas-conveying pipes in these machines are made of stout copper heavily tinned, the sulphuric acid pipes being of lead. These generators may be made of a capacity sufficient to supply any number of condensing machines simultaneously.
"In the engraving MM are shown the two generators, each complete in itself, and capable of being worked independently of the other. B B are openings for charging the generators with whiting. D D are leaden boxes for containing the sulphuric acid. Z Z are screw valves for permitting or stopping the flow of the sulphuric acid from D D to the gen-erators, a a are syphon tubes connecting the acid boxes with the generators. V is a safety vase for preventing any increase of pressure in the producers, h h are tubes connecting the safety vase with the producers. E is a tap for emptying the safety vase. E K are taps for admitting the carbonic gas through the tube t to the pump. C C are relieving taps for discharging the contents of the generators when expended, o o o o are fast and loose pulleys attached to the spindles of the agitators, for the purpose of driving the same. W is a strong cast-iron frame or stand, to which the generators are securely bolted. Two strong brackets are attached thereto, for supporting the agitator spindle; and the stand has four massive supports with bolt holes in the feet for fixing to the floor".
Fig. 138. - Double Generators op the Mondollot System - iiI.