The ordinary valance of cretonne or thin material is gathered or plaited and made with a heading. Gathered valances are made in the same way as gathered curtains. For plaited valances, the box plait is generally used. The plaits may be very near together or at some distance apart. The width of plaits and spaces must be carefully estimated, and if the plaits are a wide distance apart, this spacing must be determined with great accuracy. In figured material, the figure often indicates the best spacing. The plaits may be taken up like a tuck, basted carefully, pressed to produce the boxplait, the basting ripped out, and the valance allowed to hang free from the rod. The casing for the rod is stitched to the back at the base of the heading. The casing should be so wide that the outline of the rod is not visible on the right side; or a flat tape may be sewed on at the base of the heading and hooks attached to this. Plaited valances are more formal and finished in appearance than gathered or shirred valances. They should be measured accurately, sewed firmly, pressed well, and hung straight.

The shaped valance made over buckram and with interlining is suitable for the richest material, such as velvet, velour, or damask, and for the most stately rooms. When such materials are used, a professional can generally be employed to make them up; therefore, only the simplest type of flat valance will be described here. A simple shape should be chosen with few or no curves. A pattern is cut from heavy paper and fitted carefully to the window over the rod or other fixture to which it is to be fastened. The heavy cotton or canvas lining is then cut. Canvas is better than buckram, because the latter is likely to crack or become limp in damp weather. The canvas form is laid on the table and the lining basted carefully on it, a little tighter from left to right than the canvas, if the valance is to go on a curved rod. The lining is laid on the goods on a table. If the fabric is figured, the pattern should be studied carefully, to be sure that the figures come in the right place. The goods should be cut 1 inch larger all around than the lining. In basting the outside to the stiffened lining, it should be as much looser than the canvas as the lining is tighter, in order that the valance may fit well around the curve of the rod.

Such a valance may be finished by a gimp or cord or other slight finish. It may be hung from a 3/4-inch board fastened to the top of the trim, and projecting 3 or 4 inches from the wall. The shaped valance is seldom required for home-made curtains.

The ordinary valance of cretonne or thin material is gathered or plaited and made with a heading. Such valances vary from 12 to 18 inches in vertical length, according to the size of the window and the type of room, whether a bedroom or a living-room. For short casement windows or for a bedroom, a valance not more than 8 inches wide is sometimes very effective. The width of the window space to be covered plus from one-third to one-half its width should allow sufficient fullness for the valance. If the valance is to be plaited, the length necessary for each plait should be multiplied by the number of plaits and added to the length of the rod, plus 2 inches for making. For the heading, to the length of the finished valance should be added the same allowance as for curtains, 4 inches for the heading and run at the top, 1 1/2 inches for the hem at the bottom. For a gathered valance in a window 3 feet wide, one width of 52-inch material will allow sufficient fullness. For a flat valance, the vertical width of the valance is measured at the widest part, and 2 inches added for making. For the horizontal length of such a valance, the width of the window space to be covered is measured, or, in the case of a curved rod, the length of the rod, and 2 inches added for making. If there are plaits or pipes in such a valance, the amount required for each one must be calculated, and this added to the length of the valance.