The daily cleaning must include the care of the sink and traps, the cleaning of the stove, brushing the floor, and washing off of tables. More thorough cleaning includes the scrubbing of the floor, washing of walls, woodwork, and windows, cleaning of closets and drawers.
The stoves should be rubbed often with paper, and washed thoroughly when necessary. Great pains must be taken to keep the ovens clean, by frequent washing out. Gas burners must be taken off and boiled in a solution of sal soda once in a while. The top and bottom of coal ovens should be cleaned out once a month. Kerosene stoves need constant cleaning. Stove blacking makes the stove more attractive.
It is not difficult to wash dishes well, although many people make it a very disagreeable process. The necessary apparatus is given in the utensil list. The cleansing materials include a plentiful supply of hot water, a good soap, ammonia or borax to soften the water, a gritty soap or powder. Have a pan for washing and another for rinsing, and a tray for draining if there is no drainer attached to the sink.
Prepare the dishes by scraping and neatly piling articles of a kind together. Rub greasy dishes with soft paper, and put water and ammonia or washing powder into utensils that need soaking. Have clean towels at hand. Make ready a pan of hot soap suds, by using a soap shaker, or soap solution, but do not put the cake of soap in the pan. Have rinsing water ready.
Wash the cleanest dishes first, usually the glasses, next the cups and saucers, and the silver next. Have the soiled dishes near the pan, and put in only one or two articles at a time, washing with mop or dish cloth. To pile in a number means the nicking of china, and scratching of silver. Dip each dish in the rinsing water and then put in the drainer. If there is not room for two pans, the dishes may be piled on the drainer not too many at a time, and the rinsing water poured over. Be careful not to use too hot water for delicate china and glass. Change the soapy water when it becomes in the least greasy.
Wipe the dishes while they are still warm, and use dry towels.
Wash the utensils thoroughly, especially on the bottom. Heavy utensils can be dried without wiping, on or near the stove. Do not put any utensils away until they are perfectly dry.
Steel knives should be scoured and thoroughly rinsed and dried. Wash out the towels and dishpan, and leave the sink and drainboard perfectly clean. It does take time and work for this whole process, but spotless cleanliness is our aim.1
Home dish-washers are being devised, and should save some of the labor. None as yet has proved very satisfactory.
1. What is essential to the planning of a convenient kitchen?
2. How may cleanliness be secured through the furnishings?
3. What are the requisites in a good work table?
4. Explain the construction of a refrigerator. Of a good sink.
5. Compare the materials used in utensils.
6. What is the advantage of a machine compared with hand power?
7. Make an estimate of the cost of utensils for the home kitchen from a price list obtained from some standard furnishing shop.
8. Examine the utensils in the school kitchen and at home. Consider the material and shape with reference to durability and convenience.
9. What are the important points in cleaning the kitchen?
10. What are the important points in good dish-washing ?
11. What is a good order of work in dish-washing?
In the school kitchen the dish-washing may be done at the sink by housekeepers appointed for the day, or if equipment allows, the work may be done in twos with some definite plan for dividing the work.