Burn or Scald - Insect Stings - Something in Eye, Ear, or Throat - Bruises - Cuts - Black Eye - Nose - bleeding: Internal Haemorrhage.
Remove clothes from sound side first, cut them away, if necessary; any little bits adhering to the burn should be soaked off with linseed, olive, or sweet oil. Exclude air by dredging the wound thickly with flour, put on it a piece of linen rag dipped in any sweet oil, wrap it round with cotton-wool or flannel, and tie on with a bandage.
Carron oil, composed of equal parts of lime water and olive or linseed oil, should be kept in every household, as it is invaluable for a burn.
If in throat, slowly masticate and swallow a piece of onion. If any other part, press a watch-key over the place so that the sting may be extracted; touch the place with ammonia, or water in which a little common soda has been dissolved, or the laundry blue-bag.
The eye should not be rubbed, as this only makes it dry and inflamed, and the matter becomes more difficult to extricate. Keep the eye closed a few minutes, so that the lachrymal secretion may wash the intruder into the nostril. If in the upper lid, lay a pencil on the surface and turn back the eyelid, removing the foreign body with a camel-hair brush or a corner of a handkerchief. If in the lower lid, pull down the upper by the eyelashes, allow the eye to open slowly, when the object will probably become entangled in the lashes.
If, after the removal of the object, the eye is inflamed, drop in one or two drops of castor oil. If the object cannot be removed by home treatment, let a doctor see to it without delay.
If any lime should get into the eyes, bathe them at once with vinegar and water, and then with warm water.
If an insect, it should be syringed out with warm water; if anything that will swell, such as a pea or bean, it should be withdrawn with a loop of silver wire.
Sometimes eating a piece of thick dry bread will push the bone downwards. In this case, be careful to give only solid food, and no aperient, because if the bone is coated with food it will probably pass away without injuring the intestines. If anything goes the wrong way, and is not coughed up immediately, the patient should at once be propped up, standing on his head, and his back violently smacked. This vigorous treatment is often successful in expelling the intruding object.
Where the skin is unbroken the bruise should be painted over with arnica; but never when broken, as it may cause erysipelas. If no arnica is at hand, butter or sweet oil allays pain and helps to prevent discolouration. In severe bruises, hot fomentations and bran poultices, over which vinegar has been sprinkled, give relief when the skin is unbroken.
Get rid of any broken glass or dust by squeezing cold water from a sponge over the cut. Bring the edges together by strips of diachylon sticking-plaster, leaving space to allow of escape of any suppuration from the wound. Over this put a pad of lint or linen, soaked in olive or carbolic oil, and secure by a neat bandage.
Massage excites absorption of blood and so prevents discolouration. Hazeline, applied with a piece of lint, or linen rag dipped in a lotion consisting of one part spirit of wine to eight of water, is very soothing.
Place patient on a chair, sofa, or bed, with the head raised and the arms above the head. Apply ice or cold water to the nose and forehead. Syringing out the nostrils with a strong solution of alum in cold water is useful to arrest the flow.
Clean out any clot, and push a plug of cotton-wool, dipped in strong alum water or glycerine, down into the socket; then keep up the pressure by an additional plug in the opposite jaw.
If the hemorrhage is in the lungs, the blood will be bright, frothy, and will be coughed up.
Lay patient on his back in a cool room, with the shoulders slightly raised. Give ice to suck, or very cold water with a teaspoonful of dry salt.
If the haemorrhage is in the stomach, the blood will be very dark, thick, and clotted, and will be vomited up. The treatment is the same; only administer vinegar instead of salt. Any form of bleeding may be stopped immediately by the application of adrenalin. Witch hazel, hazeline, or Friar's balsam are also useful for this purpose.
In a crowded building fainting may usually be prevented if, when the attack is coming on, the patient will bend his head below the knees, keeping it in that position for a short time. After this the patient is usually so far recovered that he can walk into the fresh air.
A fainting patient should be laid on his back with his head lower than his feet, strong smelling-salts should be applied to the nostrils, which may also be tickled with a feather; the clothing round the neck and upper part of the chest should be loosened, and the face and chest sponged with cold water.
This treatment is usually effectual; but in an obstinate attack, hot bottles may be applied to the feet, and a douche of water applied to the head.
Light diet, warm clothing, early rising and early retiring, and plenty of occupation are the best general treatment. During a fit of hysterics, the patient should be addressed sharply, no sympathy being offered, but a douche of cold water promised, and perfect solitude granted.