Pine Cones

Owing to the amount of turpentine they contain, they rekindle fires very quickly, and produce a fragrant blaze. Dried orange-peel is useful for lighting or rekindling fires.


formed by the partial decay of vegetable matter, especially of various mosses, is used much in Ireland, and produces a pleasant odour.

Hints To A Maid Regarding Management Of Fuel

1. Ascertain position of all flues, and clean them thoroughly.

2. When cooking is finished, and very hot water is not required, push in the boiler and oven dampers, to check draught and save fuel.

3. Use small coal, and back the fire up with potato-parings when cooking is over.

4. Never break up one block of coal on another; this is how "small" is produced..

5. Try to use up the small coal equally with the larger pieces.

6. Sift all cinders, only throwing away the ash.

Cleaning Of A Kitchen Range

1. Remove all ashes and cinders from the fire-box, hearth, and ash-pan.

2. Draw out the dampers, and lift out the highest soot door of the flues.

3. Sweep through this opening with a flue brush as high as possible.

4. Sweep each flue in turn, only uncovering one at a time to prevent the soot from flying about. Sweep the soot from the lowest door into a shovel, brushing it also from the top of stove, top of oven, back of fireplace, top of boiler, or wherever it has lodged, and the oven itself should be swept. Unless there is a large amount of cooking, the flues do not require to be thoroughly cleaned more than twice a week.

Good strong flue-brushes, which are long and narrow with pliable handles, can be purchased for 1/6 each.

5. If very greasy, the stove should be washed with hot water and soda, or rubbed with a cloth dipped in turpentine, before blackleading.

6. The tiles should be washed with soap and hot water.

7. The oven shelves should be washed free from grease with hot water and soda.

For the convenience of those who prefer to blacklead the kitchen grate after all the cooking is finished, mention must be made of "Enameline," which can be used with great success on the hot metal, ordinary blacklead being always put on while the stove is cool.

8. The hearth, if whitened, is treated in the same way as stone steps (see Chapter XXVI (Daily Work Of Hall And Staircase).).

Cleaning Of A Gas Stove

1. Take out the bars from the top, wash in very hot water and soda, then polish them and the gas-rings with blacklead.

2. Clean the brass taps.

3. Clean and burnish any part made of steel.

4. Clean the oven shelves with hot water and soda.

5. The enamelled parts must be rubbed with a flannel dipped in salt.

Gas Lighting - Back In Stoves

This is usually caused by -

1. Either a leak adjacent to tap admitting too much air, thus causing the correct proportion of air and gas to be destroyed.

2. A draught blowing on the burner, and thus admixing too much air.

3. Particles of dust, silicia, or black lead partly blocking the burner, so that the supply of gas is not sufficient and only air from the air-chamber is burnt. REMEDY -

1. Mend the leak, thus preventing the entrance of air.

2. Close the window.

3. Clean out the burner carefully. In either case relight the gas.