The general directions for canning fruits have already been given. The steps in the process are the same as in the canning of vegetables except that it is not always necessary to blanch the fruit. The same principles are applied; however, there are a few additional points that should be especially noted. The fruit should be fresh, firm, but ripe, entirely free from all leaves and stems, and from rot, blemish or mould. If gritty, as with strawberries, it should be thoroughly cleaned.

The skins should be removed from peaches, apricots, pears, oranges, apples and quinces by blanching. Soft fruits which are of a sweet nature, like strawberries, raspberries, loganberries, huckleberries, or blueberries, figs and wild and Damson plums, as well as grapes, need no blanching; but sour berry fruits, as currants, gooseberries, cranberries and sour cherries are better if quickly blanched. Pineapple and citron need longer blanching because they are harder. It is not necessary to fill the can to overflowing with boiling water or syrup, whichever is to be used; it is enough to fill it within a fourth of an inch of the top.

In every case where the skin, cores, or seeds are to be removed the blanching and cold-dip should take place before it is done, as othenwise there is liable to be considerable loss of flavor. The stones should be removed from peaches and apricots and the fruit canned in halves. If desired, one peach stone may be allowed to a jar to enhance the flavor. Pineapple should be pared, the eyes removed and the pineapple cut in convenient pieces before blanching. Citron, cantaloupe and oranges should also be pared before blanching.

Time Table For Blanching And Sterilizing Fruits

No Blanching Fruits

Blanching

Minutes

Density of Syrup Needed

%

Hot

Water

Bath

Outfit

Minutes

Water

Seal

Outfit

Minutes

Pressure Outfit (5 lbs steam) Minutes

Strawberries........

35

16

10

8

Raspberries.....

35

16

10

8

Blackberries.......

35

16

10

8

Loganberries.....

35

16

10

8

Sweet cherries.....

35

16

10

8

Blueberries and huckleberries ...

30

20

15

10

Grapes.....

25

20

15

15

Wild grapes......

35

20

15

12

Wild and Damson

Plums....

30

16

12

12

Oranges (sliced) .

18

10

6

5

Oranges (blanched) .

1 1/2m

20

12

8

6

Currants.....

1

30

16

12

12

Gooseberries.....

1

30

16

12

10

Sour cherries.....

1

35

16

12

10

Cranberries....

1

35

16

12

10

Peaches.....

2

30

16

10

8

Apricots....

2

30

16

10

8

Pineapple.....

5

30

35

25

25

Figs.....

6

25

40

30

25

Pears....

1 1/2

25

20

12

8

Apples.....

1 1/2

25

20

12

8

Quinces....

1 1/2

25

20

12

8

Citron....

10

25

35

25

25

Cantaloupe....

10

25

35

25

25

The syrups indicated in the table are of the sweetness used by the best commercial canners. If desired, richer syrups may be used, but if this is done there is danger of introducing too much sugar into the dietary.

In so far as possible it is better to prepare, blanch and pack one or two jars of a product at a time. This is especially true of corn, peas, beans and asparagus. Care should be taken that unbroken vegetables and fruit be packed into jars, if appearances are to be considered.

Mold may develop if the seal is defective or if the jar tops are removed to slip the rubbers back into position. If this is done, the jars must be re-sterilized for five minutes. Mold may also appear if jars are kept in a damp place where the rubbers may decompose. The best water for canning purposes is pure, soft and free from excessive quantities of mineral matter. If any difficulty is experienced through the water, consult with the office of Home Economics States Relation Service. Washington, D. C.

In canning either fruits or vegetables the altitude makes a difference, the higher the altitude the lower the degree of heat needed to boil water. These directions are based upon an altitude of five hundred feet. For every four thousand feet increase there should be an addition of twenty per cent. to the time required for canning the different foods.