This section is from the book "The American Woman's Cook Book", by Ruth Berolzheimer. Also available from Amazon: The Domestic Arts Edition of the American Woman's Cook Book.
Eggs are often served with toast in some form. They may be garnished with crisp slices of bacon and a spray of parsley or they may be served on a bed of chopped spinach, mashed potato or chopped meat. A sauce or puree is a very attractive garnish for poached eggs. Eggs are sometimes garnished with grated cheese or cooked egg-yolk put through a sieve.
Mashed vegetables are sometimes garnished with bits of butter and a sprinkling of paprika or chopped parsley. Vegetables that are cooked and served whole are often covered with grated cheese and put into the oven long enough to brown the cheese. Slices of hard-cooked eggs or egg-yolk put through a sieve may be used as a garnish for spinach.
Cereals or grains are the seeds of certain grasses, the most important of which are wheat, oats, rice, barley, corn, rye and buckwheat. To most persons "cereals" designate only breakfast cereals; and, while the term "cereal foods" actually does include also commercial products made from cereals such as macaroni and spaghetti, corn-starch and the different flours, the present chapter deals only with cereals in the breakfast-cereal sense. There are many kinds of breakfast-cereal products on the market. Most of them are made from the cereals listed above but they differ because of variety in the processes of their manufacture. The so-called breakfast-cereals have a wide usefulness in meals other than breakfast.
With a suitable storage place, cereals and flour may be kept for several months. Unless there is a cool, dry place for storing them, they should be purchased only in amounts that can be used in a few days. This is especially true in warm weather.
Cereal products are liable to spoilage for two reasons: they may become wormy, or they may become rancid. Products made from the whole grain are more subject to spoilage than the refined products, because the whole products contain the germ, which is high in fat, and it is this that becomes rancid; it is this, also, that offers suitable material for the development of eggs laid by insects.
Cereals should be purchased from a merchant whose store is known to be kept in a sanitary condition. Closed glass jars are excellent for keeping cereals. If package cereal is purchased, it should be placed in closed glass jars after it is opened, thus insuring against infection by insects.
Seeds are made up of starchy material in a network of protein, and protected by several coats of fiber generally referred to as bran or cellulose. In the process of manufacture a part or all of the outer coats may be removed so that the actual composition of the cereal is a matter determined by the method of manufacture. If a large part is removed, the cereal is called highly refined.; if a small part is removed, it becomes less highly refined; and if the coats are not at all, or but slightly removed, it is called "whole." Therefore, the terms "whole" and "refined" refer to the amount of outer coating which the cereal contains and not to the size of the particles into which the grain is ground.
One way to determine whether cereals are whole or refined is by the color. The less highly refined cereals are apt to be dark in color, and the more highly refined cereals are light in color.