1. Choose vegetables that are young and that have made a quick growth.

2. Do not use very dirty vegetables as more micro-organisms are present on these than on clean vegetables.

3. Do not attempt to handle too large a quantity of vegetables at once, especially in hot weather. The various steps in the canning process must be followed in rapid succession to prevent loss of flavor caused by what is known as flat sour, and large quantities can not be handled rapidly.

4. Can vegetables as soon as possible after they have been picked. This is particularly necessary with asparagus, peas, beans and corn.

5. Clean the vegetables thoroughly and prepare them as for cooking.

6. If there is much variation in size, grade the vegetables so that the contents of each jar will be as nearly uniform as possible.

7. Blanch the vegetables, if necessary (Page 659). The blanching or scalding should be continued just long enough to make the vegetables sufficiently flexible to pack easily or to loosen the skins so that they can be quickly scraped off. Spinach and certain other delicately flavored greens should be blanched in steam instead of in boiling water, until they are thoroughly shrunken.

8. Chill the outside of the vegetables by immersing them in a large receptacle of cold water and removing them immediately. Do not attempt to cool the vegetables thoroughly by this cold dip.

9. Pack the vegetables in clean, tested jars to within one-half inch of the top. Corn should be packed only to within one inch of the top. Shake the jars to get a good pack, but do not press the vegetables down with a spoon.

10. Add from one-half to one teaspoon of salt to each pint jar. Some vegetables, such as peas, corn, beets and pumpkin, are improved by the addition of a small amount of sugar as well.

11. Fill the jars with boiling water to within one-fourth inch of the top. Place a new rubber on each jar, adjust the cover, and partly seal it by adjusting only the upper clamp or by slightly screwing the lid.

12-A. If the hot-water bath is used, place the jars on the rack in the container and add water. The boiling water should cover the tops of the jars to the depth of about one inch.

B. If the pressure cooker is used, place the cooker on the stove and put in the rack before placing the jars in the cooker. Add sufficient water to come up to the rack but not to cover it. Let the water get warm. Place the jars in the crate and lower it into the kettle. If two tiers of jars are to be put in the cooker, place a rack between them. Adjust the cover and place all the bolts in position; then begin screwing them down by hand, in rotation. Do not finish screwing down one bolt before starting the others. A better connection is obtained by following the right method. Finish tightening the nuts with a wrench.

Open the pet-cock and allow it to stand until a fine stream of steam appears; then close it. Shortly after this, the pointer on the dial will begin to move or register pressure. As soon as the desired pressure is reached, lower the heat and keep the steam at that pressure for the required length of time. See table on page 664.

When the required time is up, turn out the heat or remove the cooker from the fire. When the pointer on the dial of the cooker registers zero, open the pet-cock gradually and allow the steam to escape. If the pet-cock is opened before the pressure is down to zero, the liquid escapes from the jars and there is danger of forcing out the rubbers.

13. Remove the jars from the hot- water bath or cooker, seal them, and invert while they are cooling, so that if there is a leakage in the jar it may appear in time. Avoid a draft on the jars, but cool them as quickly as possible, especially if the vegetables are corn, beans, asparagus or greens.

14. Wash the jars, label them, and store in a cool place.