Chop a leg of beef in pieces, boil it in three gallons of water, with a carrot and a crust of bread, till reduced to half; then strain it oft" and put it into the pot again with half a pound of barley, four or five heads of celery cut small, a bunch of sweet herbs, an onion, a little chopped parsley, and a few marigolds. Let it boil an hour. Take an old cock or large fowl and put it into the pot, boil fill the broth is quite good. Season with salt, take out the onion and herbs, and serve it. The fowl may be omitted.
Wash a leg or shin of beef very clean, crack the bone in two or three plages, add to it any trimmings you have of meat, game, or poultry (heads, necks, gizzards or feet) and cover them with cold water. Watch and stir it up well from the bottom, and the moment it begins to simmer, skim it carefully. Your broth must be perfectly clear and limpid - for on this depends the goodness of the soups, sauces, and gravies, of which it is the basis. Then add some cold water to make the remaining scum rise, and skim it again. When the scum has done rising, and the surface of the broth is quite clear, put in one carrot, a head of celery, two turnips, and two onions. It should not have any taste of sweet herbs, spice or garlic; either of these flavors may be added afterward, if desired. Cover it close, set it by the side of the fire, and let it simmer very gently, so as not to waste the broth, for four or five hours or more, according to the weight of the meat. Strain it through a sieve into a clean and dry stone pan, and set it in the coldest place you have.
This is the foundation of all sorts of soups and sauces, brown and white.
Take the remaining parts of a chicken from which panada has been made, all but the rump; skin, and put them into the water it w;ts first boiled in, with the addition of a little mace, onion, and a few pepper-corns, and simmer it. When of a good flavor, put to it a quarter of an ounce of sweet almonds beaten with a spoonful of water; boil it a little while, and when cold, take off the fat.
Prepare a chicken in the usual way, and put it into a saucepan with two pints and a half of water, two ounces of pearl barley, the same of rice, and two ounces of the best honey; boil all together, skimming well for three hours, until it be reduced to two-thirds.
Take a joint of mutton, a capon, a fillet of veal, and three quarts of water; put these into an earthen pan, and boil them over a gentle fire till reduced to naif; then squeeze all together, and strain the liquor through a napkin.
Take two pounds of scrag of mutton; to take the blood out, put it into a stewpan, and cover it with cold water; when the water becomes milk-warm, pour it off; then put it in four or five pints of water, with a tea-spoonful of salt, a table-spoonful of best grits, and an onion; set it on a slow fire, and when you have taken all the scum off, put in two or three turnips; let it simmer very slowly for two hours, and strain it through a clean sieve.