Lemon Extract

Put the rind of 3 lemons into half a pint of alcohol. In 4 days pour off into a bottle and add 1 ounce oil of lemon. This will make a strong flavor at less than half price.

Orange Extract

Orange extract may be prepared in the same manner as the above.

Vanilla Extract

Get 3 fresh vanilla beans of a druggist, break them in small pieces, and put them into 1/2 pint alcohol. It will be fit for use in a few days.

EXTRACTS FOR CAKE are better and stronger and take less if dropped on top of the cake after it is baked.

A DELIGHTFUL FLAVORING for cake is obtained by placing a geranium leaf in the bottom of a cake-tin and pouring the cake over it.

Make Ready

Have all of the ingredients at hand before beginning to make cake. The fruit should be made ready before hand. The tins should be papered and greased at the outset. Earthenware is the best mixing-bowl. A wooden spoon is better than iron. A large cake batter had better be beaten with the hand.

General Directions For Mixing Cake

Work butter and sugar to a cream. Add the yolks of eggs that have been beaten light, then add the milk or water, and the flour or flavoring, then the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs. If fruit is used, dredge it with part of the flour, and add the last thing. Baking powder and cream of tartar should be sifted with the flour. Soda is sometimes dissolved in the milk or water, and sometimes sifted in dry.


Attention is called to "Substitutions" on page 152, and a "Cup of Flour," page 151.

Cooking In High Altitudes

Less shortening and more flour than the recipes call for must be used in the mountains. To boil or steam, more time must be allowed, as water boils at a lower temperature. In fact, in very high altitudes food cannot be cooked at all, either by steaming or boiling.

Weights And Measures

When recipes are used which specify the amounts by weight, the table of Weights and Measures, page 151, will be of service if scales are not at hand.


When frosting cake, dip the knife frequently in cold water.

To make sure that frosting will adhere to the cake, put it on when the cake is quite warm. Another way is to dust the cake with flour, then rub it off.

A tablespoon of sweet cream added to frosting will prevent crumbling. A teaspoon of vinegar, it is said, will answer the same purpose.

Place a rim of stiff paper about a cake to retain the frosting in place until it sets.

Quick Frosting

Take the white of 1 egg and stir into it all the pulverized sugar it will take; spread on the cake, and smooth with a knife dipped in water now and then.

Boiled Frosting

Boil 2 cups sugar with 1 cup water till it will click in cold water. Beat whites of 2 eggs to a stiff froth; add to the syrup, after removing from the stove, and stir constantly till well mixed. It may be used at once.

Chocolate Frosting

Mrs. J. P. Howlett, Niles, Mich.

2 whites of eggs; beat to a stiff froth. Add 1 1/2 cups pulverized sugar.

6 tablespoons grated chocolate.

1/2 tablespoon essence of vanilla.

Yellow Frosting

Yolks of 3 eggs, beat very light with 1 1/2 cups sugar; flavor with 1/2 teaspoon vanilla.

Egg-Less Frosting

One tablespoon gelatine soaked in 1 tablespoon cold water 1/2 hour. Add 1 tablespoon boiling water and 1 cup powdered sugar. Flavor to taste. Spread on cake while warm.

Frosting Without Eggs

Take I teaspoon gelatine and dissolve in 3 tablespoons of warm water; then add 1 cup powdered sugar and beat until smooth. Flavor with whatever you like.

Boiled Icing

Whites of 4 eggs, beaten stiff; 1 pint of sugar melted in water and boiled to a clear, thick syrup; add to it the eggs, and beat until cold.

Chocolate Icing

3/4 cup of sweet German chocolate. 3/4 cup of sugar. 1 tablespoon of sweet cream.

1 egg, well-beaten; all simmered together in a dish. Set in boiling water, till it is a thick paste.

Glazing For Cake

Take the beaten white of 1 egg, stir it well in a basin with a little water, let boil, and while boiling put in a few drops of cold water; then stir in a cup of powdered sugar. Boil to a foam, and then use.