Self-Raising Flour

In my own experience with a large family, I find it cheaper to buy self-raising flour by the hundred than to use baking powder. This flour we use for biscuits, shortcakes, fritters, dumplings; in short, for anything in which baking powder or cream of tartar and soda are called for. It never fails and is very convenient. Of course it must not be used with sour milk or with yeast.

Entire Wheat Flour

This flour is coming to the front and claiming the attention of housekeepers. The bread is very sweet and nutritious. The manufacturers advertise that it contains all the gluten of wheat and all the phosphates. The bread is dark. The dough must be mixed as soft as possible; otherwise the mode is the same as with common white flour. I have used it and like it well enough to make mention of it.

Heat Your Flour

In cold weather, after sifting flour into the bread-pan for bread, set the pan over a kettle of hot water and heat the flour through thoroughly. The sponge will come up so much quicker that it will surprise you.

How To Test The Heat Of The Oven

Put a spoon of flour on an old dish and set in the oven. If it browns in 60 seconds the heat is right for bread. If it browns in less time, the heat must be lessened. But if it is not browned, the oven is not hot enough. The oft-repeated rule to hold the hand in the oven long enough to count so-and-so is no accurate test, on account of the varying ability of different persons to bear heat. If stoves had a thermometer attachment for the oven door, by which the degree of heat could be seen at all times, the invention would be of incalculable benefit.

Table Of Weights And Measures

3 cups wheat flour make -

1 pound.

3 1/2 cups corn-meal make -

1 pound.

1 large coffee-cup granulated sugar makes

1/2 pound.

I large coffee-cup dry brown sugar makes

1/2 pound.

1 1/2 cups firm butter pressed down make

I pound.

I cup raisins make -

1/2 pound.

10 eggs make -----

I pound.

1 white of egg makes -

1 ounce.

I yolk of egg makes -

1 ounce.

16 ounces make -

I pound

4 teaspoons make -

1 tablespoon

4 tablespoons make -

1/2 gill.

8 tablespoons make - - - -

1 gill.

2 gills make -

1/2 pint.

2 pints make -

I quart.

4 quarts make -

1 gallon.

8 quarts make -----

1 peck.

The cup in the above measure is the common white stone-china tea-cup, and holds 1/2 pint. It is the measure adopted in this entire book.