There are two kinds of soup stock: what is known as clear stock and mixed stock. To make a clear soup we always use fresh meat and bone; the mixed stock being made from bones and pieces of meat left from roasts and cooked meats.

As this latter is made from bits of meat and bone left over, no household should be without a stock-pot. Into the stock-pot should go only such meat and bone as is perfectly sweet, the smallest piece of tainted meat will destroy the soup. Stock can be cooked on the back of the stove while other cooking' is going on. It should be cooled quickly and not allowed to stand on the stove to cool slowly. Stock allowed to cool slowly becomes sour very readily.

To prepare soup bone for clear stock remove the outer skin from the meat and bone, wipe carefully with a wet cloth. (Do not put into a pan of water and wash, as the water draws out the juices, which should be kept for the soup.) Have the butcher break the bone in many pieces. In buying a soup bone buy half meat and half bone.

White stock is made from chicken and veal.

Allow one quart of water to each pound of meat and bone.

Clear Beef Stock

Buy a shin or shank of beef, having half meat and half bone (about five pounds); remove the skin. Have the butcher break the hone and cut the meat into small pieces; add five quarts of cold water and two teaspoonfuls of salt; let come to a boil slowly; place where it will keep just below the boiling point; simmer slowly for six or eight hours, or until the meat falls from the bone; strain and cool quickly; when cold skim off the fat. For beef broth heat the plain beef stock, season with salt, pepper and a little minced parsley, and serve. This is the simplest form of beef soup.

Beef Soup

Strain the soup stock, after removing the fat, into a kettle; do not allow the sediment to pass. To four quarts of stock add one small onion cut tine, one bay leaf, one stalk of celery, two sprigs of parsley, a small bouqut of sweet herbs, ten pepper corns, and six cloves; boil gently for fifteen minutes; strain through strainer cloth. Serve as a simple beef soup.

Mixed Stock

Cover with cold water the trimmings, tough pieces of meat and bone left from roasts and broils; allow one teaspoonful of salt for each quart of water; cook slowly for about four hours: then add half an onion, six cloves, six pepper corns, two sprigs of thyme, one bay leaf; simmer for two hours longer: strain and cool quickly. This stock can be used in sauces or served as a simple soup, garnished with vegetables or some well-cooked tapioca or sago.

Chicken Stock

Select a hen fowl (not as strong flavored as a rooster); singe and scrub; prepare as for roasting, omitting the stuffing; place in a kettle and cover with boiling water: cook slowly until the fowl is tender; remove from broth, cooling the broth quickly: when cold, remove the fat. The chicken may be used for salad, creamed chicken, hash, or served as cold boiled chicken.

Chicken Broth

To one quart of chicken broth add four tablespoonfuls of boiled rice and two teaspoonfuls of minced parsley: heat boiling hot: season with salt and pepper, and serve.

Bouillon

Five pounds of beef, taken from the round, Two and one-half quarts of cold water. One level teaspoonful of salt. One carrot.

One tablespoonful of mineed onion. One small stalk of celery. One sprig of parsley Four cloves and four pepper corns.

Cut the meat into small pieces: cover with cold water and add the salt: let come to the boiling point slowly; simmer from six to eight hours: add the seasoning and cook one-half-hour longer; strain and cool quickly: next morning remove the fat: heat scalding hot: season with salt and pepper and serve. In making bouillon all the seasoning except salt and pepper may be omitted if preferred.

Consomme

One quart of chicken or veal stock. One quart of beef stock. Four cloves. One inch piece each of mace and cinnamon. Two eggs. One sprig of parsley.

Two tablespoonfuls of minced onion. Two cupfuls of carrots, parsnips and yellow turnip, cut fine. One-half bay leaf. Four pepper corns. One small stalk of celery. Rind and juice of half a lemon.

Brown the vegetables in bacon fat. taking care not to let them burn; add them and the spices to the stock and cook slowly one and one-half hours: strain and remove the fat; break the whites and shells of the eggs into one cupful of cold water and mix thoroughly; add to the soup and let come to the boiling point; add lemon, salt and pepper: cook slowly twenty minutes; strain through a strainer cloth which has been wet in cold water; reheat the soup; garnish each plate with a thin slice of lemon and three allspice berries; serve very hot.