A. Prepare Salmon Croquettes.
Use half of the white sauce to prepare salmon croquettes, using about twice as much fish (flaked) as sauce. Season with lemon, salt, and paprika. Spread on a plate to cool, shape, then dip in crumbs, in egg (beat an egg slightly with a fork, add two tablespoons of water), and in crumbs again. Fry in deep fat. When fat will turn a piece of bread a golden brown in forty seconds, it is the right temperature for frying food that is already cooked. Find out, with a thermometer, what temperature this is. (Be careful to wipe off the thermometer, but do not wash until cool for fear of breaking.) Drain the croquettes on absorbent paper, and do not pile on top of one another while hot.
B. Prepare Cheese Souffle.
Use the rest of the white sauce to prepare cheese souffle. Add to the white sauce one and a half tablespoons of grated cheese, a little paprika, and half the beaten yolk of an egg. Then fold in half the stiffly-beaten white of an egg. Bake in a buttered earthenware dish placed in a pan of water. Serve at once.
Kidney Rib French.
The wheat kernel consists of a number of different parts. The outside layer is known as bran and is removed in the process of making white flour. This bran consists of cellulose and mineral matter, with a higher percentage of nitrogen than is found in wheat flour. But this nitrogen is found largely in the aleurone or inner layer of the bran, and is enclosed in cells which are so thick-walled that probably not much of it could be digested if eaten. The germ is rejected, because it contains so large a percentage of fat that flour containing it would be less likely to keep. The portion of the kernel, after the bran is removed and without the germ, is known as the endosperm. This endosperm is the portion which is ground to make white flour. It constitutes about eighty per cent of the whole kernel and contains a large percentage of starch, - about seventy-five per cent - besides nearly twelve per cent protein, about one per cent fat, and half of one per cent of mineral matter. It is curious to note that even so dry a substance has about thirteen per cent of water present.
The length of the process of making flour varies in the different mills. In the old process, the wheat kernels were ground between millstones, the crushed product was sifted first through coarser material to remove the bran, next through bolting cloth to remove the material of intermediate size which was called middlings. What went through the bolting cloth was flour. Now, after the wheat has been screened to remove foreign substances and cleaned, it is put between corrugated rollers which flatten and partially crush the kernel, producing a small amount of flour. This is known as the first break. After the flour has been sifted out, the rest is again crushed between rollers which are this time a little closer together. These processes are repeated, some mills using so many rollers and sieves that there may be forty different "streams" of flour from the grinding. These "streams" are finally mixed together to form the various grades of flour desired. In the higher grades of flour, the gluten is more elastic and better for bread-making.
Grain of Wheat.
Diagram of section: a, bran; b, aleurone layer; c, germ or embryo; d, endosperm.
References Booklets sent out free by well-known flour mills.
1. Consult various cook books, and then make a table showing the kinds of fat, starch, liquid, and seasoning, which may be used in preparing sauces for vegetables, fish, meat, and puddings that have a white sauce basis.
2. How many pounds are there in a barrel of flour? In a bag?
3. What does the same grade of flour cost by the pound, the bag, and the barrel?
4. What are the trade names of some of the best-known, high grade flours?