This section is from the book "Commercial Gardening Vol4", by John Weathers (the Editor). Also available from Amazon: Commercial Gardening, A Practical & Scientific Treatise For Market Gardeners.
From what has been said of trained specimens and the like it should be clear that a season or more of preparation is required before the plants are in a condition for forcing, or even capable of producing a representative display of flowers. This indeed is true, and of necessity the initial expense, where the plants are grown on a large scale - whether as concerns the purchase or the creation of stock, the cost of pots, or cultural care and attention during the waiting months - is very considerable. This much of course has to be faced, the cost to be regarded as an essential in the case, a necessary part of the equipment of a plant-growing concern.
Of primary importance in all pot-grown Roses is that of established plants, and that kind of establishing in particular which is responsible for a smaller and more concentrated growth as opposed to the greater grossness of the plants when these are grown in the open ground. Now there are two ways of raising stock, viz. summer budding on to stocks already in the open ground, and grafting or budding on to stocks under glass during the winter season or the early months of the year. Each of these methods has its own advocates, and the twain are capable of advantageous adoption by any who will. The indoors budded or grafted plants will require to be liberally dealt with from the first, to encourage the production of those radical growths or "rods" so essential to a good flowering. It is in plant-growing affairs a species of foundation-stone laying, and the work must be well and truly done if the superstructure subsequently to be raised thereon is to play a successful part. For this portion of the work a year or more will be required, the plants in all circumstances to be grown in the fullest light and to receive every possible attention.
Teas and Hybrid Teas, when pot-grown, may be flowered in a few weeks or months from the graft, and may be greenhouse-grown from the start. It is of course not advised that these youthful plants be allowed to distress themselves by a too early flowering; rather should this be discouraged, so that the plants can make greater headway. The first growths are not infrequently poor and insignificant, so much so that it is a good plan when they have become fairly mature to prune them back to their base to encourage a stronger break. The subsequent treatment of this section is thinning rather than pruning as ordinarily understood, though hard pruning may be indulged in when the plants have become ungainly or even overcrowded with shoots.