In all of dwarf tree culture, when the system is performed upon a tree whose roots are of a free growing stock, it is the practice to root prune, because it has come to be well known that without root pruning the tree soon becomes gorged with sap, and productive of unhealthy water shoots instead of short spurs and fruit buds. The working of the pear on the quince, or the apple on the Paradise, because of these varieties making naturally but small trees, and mostly surface lateral roots, has the same result as root pruning of the roots of vigorous free-growing stocks.

This necessity of a reduced root being a requisite for a reduced tree has become patent to all cultivators of trees, but may it not be applicable to the culture of the grape ? Nature makes no mistakes, when left to herself, though we may make enough of them in interpreting her meaning, and in our endeavors to turn her from her course. "Out of sight, out of mind," is an old adage; and as the roots of the vines are out of sight, they are too often mostly out of mind; nevertheless, the study of their condition is essential to true principles of practice, and it is fair to presume that a portion of the maladies and diseases that assail the grape have their origin in the root. It is above ground that we see the results of disease, from whatever cause; and were the roots as visible as the leaves, we should perhaps detect the presence of causes, and be enabled to apply the remedy before any effect could be produced. But the roots are out of sight; and if causes indicative of disease exist in the soil, we are ignorant of the fact until advised thereof by mildew, rot, etc., in the leaf and fruit.

Nature, as we have said, makes no mistakes, and all attempts to alter her characteristics almost invariably produce undesirable results. The vine is naturally of a rampant habit, growing luxuriantly and covering a large space, its roots corresponding to its vine; and while we prune the roots of the pear to balance our desire for a certain form and size of stem and branch, we cut back our vine freely, without any regard to the root. Can any physiologist doubt the result which must sooner or later ensue? Can any one expect a vine perpetually cut back and restricted to a space far below its natural requirements, to become otherwise than plethoric from over-supplies furnished by the unrestricted roots ? Can we continue to expect health and freedom from disease when one portion of the plant is permitted to overbalance its opposite ? Shall we not have to inaugurate a new system of vine culture, and with it invention of implements for rapid execution of the labors connected therewith ?