This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
The beauty and interest which a garden affords depend greatly upon the disposition of its individual parts, even the arranging and planting of a single bed require experienced taste, in order to produce effective display. Take, for example, a Rose bed; imagine the kinds to be indiscriminately mixed, and no attention to have been paid to their respective heights, and the effect produced by such a medley assemblage will be immediately felt by any person possessing taste, and accustomed to observation. Let us farther suppose such a bed to be circular, and the effects will be as bad as it well could be, unless the object aimed at was to represent wild nature. The taller plants- should have been placed in the center, and the others arranged so as gradually to fell to the outer rim. This arrangement would advance us a step; but let us proceed further, and dispose of the trees in zones or circles. In this way we give the bed the expression of design. For be it clearly understood that we are discussing gardening in an artificial we reach the outer one. By such a classification we add color as well as design: but imagine the colon to be so arranged that another important feature is produced, viz., contrast, and the picture becomes still further improved, though not yet finished.
Would not an edging render the whole more complete? The beauty and brilliancy of the Rose would be singularly improved, and relieved by an evergreen margin. This would in some measure help as it were to lift the group from the earth, and place it nearer the eye. This edging may be of Ivy or Cotoneaster microphylla or Per-nettya mucronata, or in fact any low dwarf evergreen shrub kept shorn into a formal rim.
In the above I have shown how much beauty may be exhibited even in a circular bed, by the exercise of a little taste and forethought; but these simple principles are by no means confined to a Rose bed; they can be carried out in every matter relating to the arrangement of a garden, so that unity and comprehensiveness of design may characterise the whole. When a contrary state of things prevail, delight vanishes, confusion takes the place of order, disgust that of pleasure; and Instead of the most charming of all pursuits, contributing to relieve the man of business from the oppressions and satieties of mind usually resulting from close application, he abandons the whole in utter dismay and hopelessness. - lb.
It may seem out of season to write of planting roses in June, but our experience in forming a bed of roses leads us to consider this month quite as desirable as any. Formerly, only the tender roses were grown in pots; and if hybrid perpetuals were wanted, it was necessary to procure them early in spring or in the autumn. Now, however, the large rose-growers keep a stock of all sorts grown in pots; and we have found that when planted out in this month, they grow vigorously from the first, and bloom well late into autumn.
The soil should be dug deep, say eighteen to twenty inches, and well intermixed with good rotten manure. Turf and bones are also good manure for roses. When the plants are turned out of the pots, if they are worked on manetti or any other roots, all suckers or sucker buds should be rubbed off, the drainage just removed; but otherwise the ball should be disturbed as little as possible, although when the earth has been pressed well to it, a slight pressure near the collar may be given just to insure the water passing through the fibers. After a good soaking of water, the ground around newly planted roses at this time should be well mulched, and for this purpose new-mown grass is one of the best materials. A watering of liquid manure once a week will cause the plants to make strong and healthy growth and produce abundant blooms.