It is universally acknowledged that there are not two more beautiful evergreen hardy shrubs than our native Rhododendrons and Kalmias. It is equally a matter of fact, that although they form a principal feature in the composition of European pleasure grounds, they are rarely seen in our own, and their real beauty and adaptability for cultivated shrubberries are as little known as the rarest plant of foreign climes. The efforts that many enthusiastic cultivators have made in introducing all the best foreign varieties of fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs are highly commendable; but, as the late Gen. Dearborn once remarked when treating on a similar subject, we should "first look at home and direct our attention to the beautiful, the grand, and the valuable, and endeavor to procure afterwards whatever may be found better or useful in other regions of the earth." I think we are at fault in overlooking those plants that are so highly valued in every country but their native one, and neglecting the good that is within our reach for something that is supposed more valuable merely because it is more difficult of attainment.

This antipathy to native plants has frequently been dwelt upon by writers on horticulture, and has as frequently been met with the answer that they cannot be cultivated without great expense and labor in preparing beds of suitable soil, selecting particular locations, watering, mulching, etc, and after all the plants never attain that healthy luxuriance they possessed before removal. It is the opinion of many that the plants under consideration require a certain kind of peaty soil called by some "laurel earth," which is to be found in deep ravines and swampy spots, without which it is utterly useless to attempt their cultivation. If we investigate the subject we will find that there is no reason for incurring all this unnecessary expense in the preparation of soil. Both the Rhododendron and Kalmia are found in all situations, on clayey slopes, in swampy marshes, on rocky knolls, and even, in crotches of trees, under conditions similar to the Orchidae of tropical regions, and I have cultivated them under glass, in connection with Maxillarias and Stanhopeas, on blocks of wood, and in rustic baskets.

When the epiphytal species of the Sjkkim Himalayas were first announced, European botanists considered it quite startling that the genus should assume that habit Had they been familiar with the nature and adaptability of the American species, their surprise would not have been so great, and it affords us another proof of the scantiness of information so important to practical cultivators - viz., the physical conditions and local circumstances under which plants are found in their native habitats, as an auxiliary to their artificial treatment.

All plants that form fibrous roots similar to the Kalmia, never run deep in the soil; they ramify and spread a net-work of fibres on the surface among the decaying leaves and vegetable matter annually deposited. Hence, we may infer that there is no necessity for forming deep preparations of any particular soil for their culture; and further, that if transplanted in the ordinary mode adopted with ornamental trees, a weak growth and premature death might be anticipated, since the roots would be placed out of the reach of those atmospheric gases so necessary to their development.

Within the last few years I have removed many hundreds of these plants of all sizes, from six inches to sixteen feet in height, and from three to thirty years of age, and transplanted them in shrubberies without discrimination as to exposure or locality, and have not had a failure of more than five per cent, and these principally where the roots of neighboring trees deprived the plants of sustenance during dry weather. No regard was paid to the nature of the soil, but in all cases it was deeply loosened up with the spade in order to suspend a supply of moisture that would be available in extreme drouth; the ground being left loose and level on the surface, is then in a proper condition for the reception of the plants.

In the selection of the plants I prefer those growing in open exposures in the woods, rather than those under the deep shade of trees, the former being of a more bushy and desirable habit and growth, and furnished with a better supply of roots. A circle of sufficient diameter to inclose a suitable quantity of roots is cut round the plant, which is then easily brought up by skimming underneath with a spade. Very little attention is given to secure a ball of earth, since it is quite useless, because the roots do Pot penetrate many inches from the surface in ordinary cases.

Wo come now to planting, which I particularly wish to notice. I am convinced that to improper planting, rather than to any other cause, may be attributed the many failures in attempting to cultivate these plants. My method is not to plant them in the soil at all, but simply set them down an the surface. A sprinkling of soil is scattered over the roots, principally about their extremeties, to be washed in by rains. They should always be planted in masses or clumps, as being much more effective than single specimens; they can also receive more attention during summer in the mulching or covering the whole surface of roots with short lawn grass, leaves, etc. During the first season after removal, they may occasionally require artificial waterings; but if the soil is deepened properly previous to planting, and attention paid to keeping the roots covered, they will not require much further care. * In the fall, a covering of leaves five or six inches in depth should be thrown over the roots, to decompose and form a rooting medium for the young fibres, similar to what is provided for them in their native woods. It is this annual surface deposit that affords nutriment to the plant, and hence we see the error of deep planting, and their healthy growth on all soils and in all situations.

Even on rocky surfaces the roots penetrate the numerous crevices of the rock, and receive nourishment from the decay of leaves and vegetable matter, which the descending rains convey to their utmost extremities. They descend deep into these fissures, because atmospheric gases are not impeded; but cover these tender fibres with five or six inches of close, compact soil, and their further extension is completely arrested.

* In the spring of 1852, white engaged In removing KahMlas, I lifted a very large and line specimen which coold not be placed on the wagon at the time. Thinking to get it at an early day, I left it on the surface, merely throwing a few bandfuls of leaves orer its roots. On commencing Operations the next October, I came across this plant quite.

I may, on some future occasion, present my views with reference to the introduction of undergrowth shrubs in ornamental plantations. The common-place, one-idea system, of dotting over a certain portion of ground with trees at regular distances, is becoming so prevalent, that it is time some characteristic feature should be attempted, in order to break up the monotonous, formal aspect, produced by this method of planting.