This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
I appear in the foregoing pages to have employed a great number of words in the endeavor to make plain this simple, agreeable and novel mode of cultivating fruit* trees. Judging from my own feelings, its advantages and pleasures are manifold. Each bud, leaf and blossom is brought close under the eye of the cultivator. All the minute and beautiful operations of nature can be closely watched in a genial climate. The silvery-covering of the peach blossom-bud, - the beauty of its fully developed flowers (how fresh and happy they always look!) - the anthers shedding their pollen, - the germs gently swelling, - the downy, ruddy, luscious-looking coat of its charming fruit, are all calculated to give pleasure to the healthful, cheerful mind; for the varied works of Nature's laboratory are brought near to the eye, near to the mind, near to the heart, which is instinctively lifted in thankfulness to the Giver of all such good and beautiful things.
Fig. 12. The Brick Arnott's Stove.
A, front elevation; B, ground plan; C. horizontal section through a b in A, showing the fire-bars or grating; D, vertical section through c d in A, showing the front and back fire-lumps, the former reduced to nine inches in depth; K, iron pipe leading to the chimney; F, fire-lump, placed an inch and a half from the mouth of the pipe leading to the chimney, and about the same distance from each end: this causes the smoke to pass round, this; preventing a loo rapid consumption of the fuel. The courses of bricks in height are laid flat.
The above figures, the blocks of which have been kindly lent me by the editor, appeared in the "Gardener's Chronicle" for January 24th, 1846, and a description of them was given in the same paper for January 17th in the same year (p. 266).
I had then four in operation; I have now twelve; and have never yet seen any mode of heating small or moderate-sized houses so efficient.
For a house twenty to thirty feet long by twelve, a stove two feet four inches square, outside measure, and three feet ten inches high, and the firebox eight inches over and eight inches deep, will be amply sufficient. For a house forty feet long by twelve, one of two feet ten inches in diameter and three feet ten inches high, the fire-box ten inches over and ten inches deep, will also answer well. The stove should be placed in the centre of the house, within a* foot or eighteen inches of the back wall, and the horizontal pipe* go at once into a chimney outside, or, what is better, the chimney may be built inside, and carried out of the back wall, just under the glass. By this method no heat is Tost. If it be thought necessary to have the feeding-door and draught-door outside, the draught-pipe must be reversed. I, however, prefer the doors inside, for the cold damp air of the house, floating near the ground floor, is sucked in and heated. No inconvenience is experienced from dust, as every morning, before the stove is cleaned out, a pint or so of water is poured in at the feeding-door, so as to saturate the ashes before they are drawn out. Coke from the gasworks is the only proper fuel to use.
These stoves should be built with 4-inch brickwork and mortar, the fire-boxes with fire-bricks and fire-clay; and they should not be used till two or three weeks after building, or the brick-work is apt to crack. I find nothing like iron for the roof or top of the stove, as Welsh tiles are apt to crack. A plate of cast-iron, nearly three-quarters of an inch thick, is necessary. On this a shallow pan, two inches deep, two feet square, of galvanized iron, filled with water, will always keep up a genial moisture in the house.
Fig. 13. The Arnott's Stove Boiler.
A, iron plate: B, flow-pipe; C, return-pipe; D, door over the boiler: E, feeding-door; G, flow-pipe; H, return pipe.†
* These stoves will not burn well with a long horizontal draught or flue: three feet most 1m the extreme length, † The flow and return-pipes were originally 2-inch; they are now made 3 and 4-inch, and are found to do better.
[We have given entire this description of Arnott's Stove, bat the usual modes employed in America will prove equally efficacious. - Ed. Hort].
The above, figured in the "Gardener's Chronicle" for May 12th, 1849, the blocks of which have been kindly lent to me by the editor, is perhaps the most economical and efficient hot-water apparatus ever introduced; it is merely a boiler placed over the fire-box of an Arnott's stove, which does its duty most admirably, at a less cost for fitting up and fuel than any boiler 1 have yet seen in operation.
I have now six in full work. They have been hitherto cast of three sizes - 14-inch, 16-inch, and 18-inch. One of fourteen inches (fourteen inches square), which holds just eight quarts of water, is now heating an orchard house forty feet by twelve, - it does this well, at a very small cost for fuel - coke; another 16-inch boiler heats two propagating pits with* gutters, each sixty feet long by six feet, also most efficiently; another heats also a propagating pit sixty feet long by six feet. These two last-mentioned boilers have superseded two of those ribbed monstrosities which cost four times the amount to "set," and devoured four times the quantity of fuel required by the. above very simple form of boiler. When used for heating houses, the feeding and draught-doors may be outside, although I do not adopt this plan: but the stove should be, if possible, inside, as the dry gentle heat of the stove, with the moist heat from tanks or gutters, forms a perfect combination. These boilers are made by Mr. Hughes, the Iron Foundry, Bishop's Stortford, at a charge of from 30s. to 35s. each.