J, a straight, clean-stemmed Brier or Dog Rose (Rosa canina) as taken from a hedgerow, prepared, and planted: n, stem; o, a slanting cut at the desired height for a standard, made just above a joint or promising bud; p, the jagged end of the underground stem or root; q, part,of the underground root or stolon; r, a fibrous root, the only one on the stock; s, the point of cutting off the end of the jagged rootstem; t, the point of detaching the stoloniferous root; u, round reddish knobs on the underground stem, which, unless cut off carefully, would develop into suckers; v, the depth of planting.
K, the stock J in the autumn after a year's growth and working: w, roots which have pushed from the rootstem cut; x, roots from the rootstem; y, the underground portion of the stem free from suckers; z, the stem from which all growths have been rubbed off, except in the case of the two uppermost joints, while quite small; a, vigorous shoots, which were shortened after the buds were inserted; b, Rose buds, which have "taken"; c, the points of cutting off the Brier shoots.
L, a Brier with a knob-like rootstem and side branches: d, the rootstock; e, fibrous roots; f, a clean cut below the rootstock, where a callus usually forms and roots are emitted; g, the point where a stoloniferous rootstem has been cut off; h, a shoot produced just above the ground from a stem cut off close; i, the side shoots cut close to the stem, but leaving the basal buds; j, the top cut off to a point where side growths are desired to issue; k, the depth of planting.
M. a Brier trimmed and planted: 1, the curled rootstock; m, the strong roots shortened; n, the fibrous roots, which are carefully retained; o, a portion of the stem from which buds have been removed; p, the depth of inserting in the soil; q, the top properly cut off at the desired height.
N, a Brier stock showing the different and usual heights of standards: r, 4 feet; s, 3 feet; t, 2 feet; u, 1 foot - the dotted outlines indicating the respective growths for budding in due course.
O, a Brier, trimmed and planted for a 1-foot standard, with the outer stock notched to induce rootlets close to the upright stem: v, the part from which buds have been carefully cut off; w, the notches.
P, the result of notching the rootstock: x, fibres; y, top growths.
The hedgerow Brier is the only stock so far found suitable for Roses as standards. The characteristics of the Dog Rose are a vigorous growth, with very stout curved downward spines, great hardiness, strong and relatively few roots, more disposed to extend than to form fibres, and still more to produce stoloniferous underground stems and push suckers.