The therapeutic measures against cancer which have evolved thus far out of the pathogenic and pharmacodynamic concepts described in these pages have proved, as we have shown above, to be useful. All along in their development, they have fallen short of producing uniformly, the full measure of benefit which, we have continuously hoped, one day will be attained in most and possibly in all cases of malignancy.

Yet the results achieved with biologically guided therapy, imperfect as they have been, have continuously indicated the great potential of the method.

What has been accomplished during the years has been hardly considered as a final measure of the effectiveness of this basic new approach to treatment but only of the available criteria and agents. With the criteria and agents the method itself has been evolving. In its present form, the method represents a valuable tool for helping many cancer patients who are entirely beyond help with present day methods. In spite of its accomplishments further advances along the same lines—both in techniques for recognizing fundamental offbalances at different levels of organization and even in new compounds more effective in correcting them—are to be expected.

Equal in importance with the current results with biologically guided therapy is the fact that new applications are evolving; that this approach helps us to better understanding and treatment of malignancy and of other pathological conditions as well; and that, by its very nature, the method has the capacity to furnish the guidance needed for improving it.

We are presenting here the form of treatment which we currently use.

In this form, when correctly applied, biologically guided therapy can, in many cases, bring under control even far advanced malignancies. The importance of the correct application of agents based upon specific criteria makes it necessary to emphasize how agents are chosen and used.

Criteria Used: Recognition that no test is able to indicate by itself the existence of more than an offbalance at a specific level, and that cancer is a complex condition involving many levels, has led to the use of a group of tests able to offer the necessary information on offbalances at different levels. We use the following routinely:

Urinary—specific gravity PH surface tension calcium excretion index Blood— potassium in serum potassium in total blood Pain pattern Body temperature In exceptional instances when the routine tests do not suffice, we use:

Urinary—chloride retention index Blood— chlorides in serum leucocytes count eosinophiles count The offbalance indications provided by these tests are shown in Table XXII.

Table XXII

Test

Offbalance D

Average Values

Offbalance A

Specific gravity

high

1.016

low

ph

low

6.2

high

Surface tension

low

68

high

Serum potassium

high

4.5 mEq

low

Total blood potassium

low

38 mEq

high

Body temperature

low

37°C

high

Leucocytes

low

7000/cmm

high

Eosinophiles

low

100/cmm

high

Chloride index

high

2.1

low

Calcium index

low

2.5

high

Chlorides in serum

high

525 mg %

low

Pain pattern

alkaline

acid

Whereas the other analyses give direct information concerning the off balances, the values of potassium in serum have to be correlated with the values in red cells or in total blood potassium for a recognition of the offbalance present. A serum potassium above 4.5 mEq and a low total blood potassium below 38 mEq indicate an offbalance D, while a low serum potassium below 4.2 mEq with a high total blood potassium above 40 mEq, an offbalance A. Low values for both analyses indicate a quantitative deficiency of this element in general, while high values for both an excess of this element in the organism.

As related to the different levels of the organization, specific gravity changes reflect processes taking place especially at the systemic level. The pH reveals, indirectly, changes at the tissue level. Surface tension indicates offbalances at the metazoic compartment; both serum and total blood potassium indicate cellular level offbalances. However, while potassium measurements give an indication of cytoplasm changes, calcium indicates cellular level changes, especially in the membranes. Eosinophile counts indicate acid base changes at the tissue level, and temperature, systemic off balances.

As we have seen, any abnormal value is most likely to accurately reflect a fundamental offbalance at its corresponding level when the same value is obtained in several repetitions of the test. Tests on two or three successive days are most helpful in ascertaining the existence of an offbalance, especially if it is limited to only a few levels.

The offbalance determines which agents are to be used.

As anti A agents, we now use: propionic aldehyde epichlorohydrin hexyl or heptyl diselenide tetralin perselenide tetralin persulfide sodium or magnesium thiosulfate mixture of lipoacids

As anti D agents, we use: heptanol polyunsaturated alcohols butanol glycerol insaponifiable fraction of liver glycerophosphoric acid