These are so nearly allied, that they cannot well be treated of apart; when a person begins to be melancholy, he is fad, dejected, dull without any apparent cause; he is fearful, and yet loves to be alone : he is generally, costive and his excrements are often dry, round, and covered with a black bilious humour; their urine is a little sharp and bilious, the countenance is pale and wan, they are weak and inactive, and yet are often greedy in eating.

Those who are actually mad, are in an excessive rage when provoked to anger; some make a hideous noise, others shun the fight of mankind, and others again endeavour to do them-selves a mischief; some are mad only at times, and others have their raving fit at the new and full moon, especially in hot weather.

In the cure, bleeding is the most efficacious of all remedies : open a vein first in the foot; in a few days after in the arm, then in the jugular, or in the nostrils with a straw; and last of all in the vein of the forehead with a blunt lancet, for fear of hurting the membrane that surrounds the skull, making a ligature round the neck to cause the veins to swell; warm half baths are likewise convenient, to derive the blood from the head to the lower parts: but before he enters the bath, he should have his head covered with a cloth dipt in cold water, or poured thereon; purgatives are likewise useful, but the gentle are preferable to the violent, especially when this disease proceeds from the hypochondriac passion.

Add to these the Selters mineral waters, which is sold in London, mixt with a third part of asses milk, which should be drank spring and fall five or six weeks; but more especially, the nitrous decoction is of singular service in melancholy-madness; the following mixture has cured many people : "Take of the leaves of balm cut small a handful, infuse "them in a quartern of brandy, and then add half a dram of "crabs eyes, mix them;" the dose is two spoonfuls three or four times a day : some give a dram of white briony root in a quarter of a pint of milk to purge off the bad humours, and some direct large doses of camphire, even to half a dram every night. When the patient is exhausted, bleeding is hurtful, and restoratives good; sometimes it will be proper to give a scruple of black hellebore in the morning, and a composing draught at night, which may be used frequently if not too violent in the operation, and then the dose may be lessened; but remember that opiates often given, render the patient stupid: among the other medicines, it will be proper to give an ounce of tincture of valerian root pretty often, for it is of singular advantage to the head.