In the investigation of this disease particular attention should be directed to the urine, as its color, smell and sediment will afford a pretty correct guide to the character of the calculi.

The lithic urine lays the foundation for a large proportion of the calculi which are formed in the bladder or other parts of the urinary organs. It is characterized by the spontaneous deposition of lithic acid, constituting the principal part of what is generally termed the sandy or brick-dust sediment of urine.

Next in frequency to the variety just mentioned, .are those composed of a combination of Phosphoric-acid, Magnesia and Ammonia. The urine is fetid and the sediment deposited of a white color, resembling mortar.

Another variety, less frequent, however, than either of the above, is the mulberry calculus. It is of a dark brown color and is very heavy and hard. There are several other varieties of calculi, varying in appearance and in chemical combination, but it will be unnecessary to particularize here.

It is worthy of remark that this disease is more generally found in the male than in the female sex, and is principally confined to youth and old age, and is seldom if ever seen either in the frigid or the torrid zones. It is especially liable to attack those in whom there is any hereditary tendency to gout.

Diagnosis

The urine, as a general thing, shows some kind of sediment, and there may also be frequent desire to urinate. Often no pain is felt for some time, unless after severe physical exertion. An attack may come on suddenly, in which the stone, if situated in the kidneys, may pass into the bladder. The pain is of the most intense and violent character, the urine high colored, or mixed with blood. Where the stone is already in the dladder, the symptoms are varied. There may be stoppage of water, great heaviness about the region of the bladder and general uneasiness.

Treatment

One great object must be to prevent if possible, the formation of Calculi, by correcting those secretions on which the morbid sediments depend. After the stone is already formed, the physician must either dissolve it by means of medicines administered internally, or remove it by an operation. Among some of the prominent causes of this disease, we may mention derangement of the digestive organs, from errors in diet, abuse of spirituous liquors, etc, lime water, mental and bodily fatigue, and tendency to gout and rheumatism. A sea voyage to either a hot or cold climate, will often produce entire relief. In all cases, a plain and simple diet, and a cheerful temperament, are of the utmost importance.

In the lithic acid diathesis, baths and friction should be freely used, every thing of an acid nature avoided, and animal food form a principle article of diet.

The phosphatic diathesis requires, on the contrary, a vegetable diet, and the free use of acids and fruits.

The prominent remedies are, Cannabis, Cantharis, Nux-vomica, Lycopodium, Sarsaparilla, Calcarea, Phos-phoi'us and Asparagus.

Cannabis and Cantharis, during a paroxysm of pain from the gravel, are prominent remedies. There is a burning, scalding, and painful sensation when making water, as well as after; the urine is sometimes slimy or bloody, and violent pain may also be felt in the region of the kidneys and bladder.

Dose

Three drops of the remedy, may be dissolved in a tumbler half full of water, and a tablespoonful given in alternation, during the paroxysm, half an hour apart. The external application of warmth, during the severe paroxysm, will frequently aid in producing relief.

Nux-vomica will be found highly advantageous, when the disease originates in errors of diet, abuse of stimulants, and chronic derangement of the digestive organs, also where are acute and spasmodic pains.

Dose

If the paroxysm is severe, a powder, or six globules, may be taken once an hour, but as a general thing, once every twelve or twenty-four hours, will be all that is necessary.

Lycopodium is especially useful in persons of a lymphatic temperament, and those who have been troubled with affections of the mucous membrane. The pain is principally in the urethra, and is of a burning, smarting character, during the passage of water. The urine is fetid, is of a dark red color, and deposits a red or yellowish sediment

Dose - Same as Nux.

Calcarea is useful where the affection is developed in scrofulous children. The pain in the urinary organs, and the desire to pass water, are worse during the night; the urine is fetid, and deposites a white sediment.

Dose

Until four powders have been taken, a powder, or six globules, every twelve hours, after this, once in twenty-four hours.

Phosphorus

This remedy will be found highly advantageous in old and debilitated subjects, and where there is great prostration of strength, also where the patient has no control over the urinary organs, and where the urine has a strong smell of ammonia, and deposits a whitish, or brick-dust sediment.

Dose

A powder, or six globules, may be taken every twenty-four hours.

A sparagus is a valuable remedy where there is a fetid smell to the urine, depositing a whitish sediment; frequent desire to urinate, pain on passing water, and cutting pain in the urethra and kidneys.

Dose

Three drops, or twelve globules, may be mixed in a tumbler of water, and a teaspoonful given once in twelve hours.