This section is from the book "Dental Medicine. A Manual Of Dental Materia Medica And Therapeutics", by Ferdinand J. S. Gorgas. Also available from Amazon: Dental Medicine.
Bromides are diffusible agents which rapidly pass into the blood, and in large doses can be detected in the faeces and intestinal mucus, owing to a portion of the agent not being absorbed. They depress the heart's action, and also respiration and animal temperature; in some cases large doses may cause transient excitement, giddiness and intoxication. Moderate doses have a tranquillizing effect and refreshing sleep, and lower the sensibility to pain and irritation. Their immoderate use will cause paralysis of the muscles, and a condition known as bromism, the symptoms of which may be extreme pallor and anemia, dilated pupils, slow and feeble action of the heart, breathlessness and quickened pulse on slight exertion, acne, skin eruption, cool extremities, tremulous and uncertain movements, want of tactile feeling, relaxation of the genitals, dry fauces, difficult deglutition, and weak mind.
Ammonii Bromidum - Bromide of Ammonium. Formula. - Nh4br. In the form of colorless, transparent crystals, or a white granular salt, with a pungent, saline taste, neutral reaction, and no odor. Ammonii Bromidum is soluble in 1.5 parts of water, in 150 parts of alcohol at 6o° F., and in 0.7 part of boiling water.
Gr. x to considerably diluted.
Calcii Bromidum - Bromide of Calcium. Formula.- CaBr2. In the form of a white granular, deliquescent salt, with a pungent, saline, bitter taste, and no odor. It has a neutral reaction, and is soluble in 0.7 part of water, and in 1 part of alcohol.
Lithii Bromidum - Bromide of Lithium. Formula. - LBr. In the form of white, granular, deliquescent salt, with a pungent, bitter taste, and a neutral reaction. Quite soluble in water and alcohol.
Gr. v to
Sodii Bromidum - Bromide of Sodium. Formula. - NaBr. In the form of small colorless crystals, or a white crystalline powder, with a saline taste, neutral reaction and no odor. It is soluble in 1.6 parts of water, and in 200 parts of water at 6o° F.
to (See Bromides of Potassium, Camphor and Ethyl.)
The bromides have the same general action and are employed for the same purposes. The bromide of lithium is considered to have a more hypnotic influence than the others; and the bromide of sodium is generally given in full doses; the others in rather smaller doses. Prof. Bartholow considers the bromide of potassium to possess more toxic power, and the bromide of sodium the least. As regards their influence on the pulse, body, head and respiration, the same author places the bromides in the following order: bromide of sodium, bromide of lithium, bromide of potassium, bromide of ammonium. The bromides are eliminated through the kidneys chiefly; also through the mucous membrane of fauces, bronchi, intestinal canal and the skin; several days being required for their diffusion outwardly from the blood. The bromides are administered in delirium tremens, insanity, increased action of the heart, tetanus, neuralgia, epilepsy, vaso-motor disturbances, spasmodic asthma, abnormal sexual excitement, nocturnal seminal emissions, vomiting of cerebral congestion, pregnancy and seasickness, cholera infantum, migraine, strychnine-poisoning, etc., etc. Locally in pruritis, prurigo, eczema, epithelioma, old ulcers, etc. (For Dental Uses, see Bromide of Potassium.)