Formula

(C20H24N20)H2O.S04+7H2O.

Derivation

The two important alkaloid principles of cinchona are quinia and cinchonia, which exist in combination with kinic acid. (See Cinchona.)

Sulphate of Quinine is obtained by boiling the powdered yellow cinchona bark in water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, by which the alkaloid quinine is separated from kinic and other acids, and forms a soluble hydrochlorate or muriate, the salt being decomposed and the quinine precipitated by the addition of lime; sulphuric acid is added, after digestion in boiling alcohol, which dissolves the quinine, and the solution is boiled with animal charcoal, filtered and allowed to crystallize. Sulphate of quinine is in the form of colorless, very light and silky crystals, which are readily soluble in alcohol and in water acidulated with sulphuric acid, but insoluble in ether. It has an intensely bitter taste, and is inodorous.

Medical Properties And Action

Sulphate of quinine is a verv valuable tonic and antiperiodic, also antiseptic and stimulant. In small doses it increases the fullness of the pulse and action of the heart, and improves the tonicity of the capillary vessels, and is diffused into various parts of the system with great rapidity.

In large doses it depresses the action of the heart, lowers the blood pressure, and enfeebles as well as diminishes the beats of the pulse. As it accumulates in the brain, it causes a fullness in the head, a constricted feeling about the forehead, a buzzing or ringing in the ears - tinnitus aurium, giddiness, vertigo and deafness, which may be permanent if the agent is taken in excessive quantity ; also amaurosis and amblyopia may be caused by full doses. Poisonous doses cause intense headache, dilated pupils, delirium, coma and convulsions. Some five hours are required to bring about the greatest effect of quinine, although it can be detected in the urine in about half an hour after it is taken into the stomach, and elimination, chiefly by the kidneys, is not completed in a less time than 48 hours, although the principal portion is excreted in 12 hours.

Therapeutic Uses

Quinine is extensively employed in periodical diseases of a malarial origin, such as intermittent fever, neuralgia of various forms, as enteralgia, hepatalgia, nephralgia, gastralgia, sciatica, angina pectoris, and in cases of debility, pneumonia, pleurisy, endocarditis, pyaemia, erysipelas, puerperal fever, cerebro-spinal meningitis, eruptive fevers, etc., etc., but the most important use of quinia is for the treatment of malarial diseases.

Dose

Of sulphate of quinine, gr. j to Dose 1383 in aromatic water, by the aid of aromatic sulphuric acid, and also as an enema, or hypodermically. Pills may be made by combining 24 grains of sulphate of quinine with 14 grains of clarified honey, and dividing into 24 pills. Pills can also be made with glycerine.

Dental Uses

Sulphate of quinine is internally employed in dental practice in reducing inflammation of the peridental membrane when resorted to in the early stages of the disease, and before effusion of inflammatory products, cell proliferation and escape of the white blood corpuscles have occurred ; also, in hypersensitiveness of dentine - three or four grain doses every four hours, until thirty grains have been taken (Klump). The treatment of facial and other neuralgic affections, especially when of malarial origin, in cancrum oris, for its tonic and stimulant effects, in aphthous ulcerations of the mouth and in scurvy, where the system is much debilitated, and externally as an ingredient ©f dentifrices, for its tonic and stimulating properties.

Dental Formulae

For Facial Neuralgia from Dental Disturbance.

Barrett.

Ferriet quin.(cit) . . Syrup aurantii . . .

Aqua dest......

Elixir calisayae . . .

Signa

Coch. parv. ter in die.

Signa 1384Signa 1385

For Neuralgia Associated with Anaemia.

Garretson.

Tinct. ferri chloridi . . Quininae sulphatis . .

Signa

Teaspoonful four times daily.

Signa 1386Signa 1387

For Neuralgia from Dental Disturbance.

L. De L. Gorgas.

Quininae sulphatis . . gr.x Ferri sulphat. exsic. . gr.v Acidi arseniosi . . . gr.ss Ext. nucis vomicae . . gr.v. M. Ft. pil. No. xx. Signa. - One pill every four hours.

Signa 1388

For Acute Periodontitis.

Quininae sulph. . . . Acidi sulph. aromat. . Elix. calisaya bark . .

Signa

A tablespoonful every two or three hours.

Signa 1389Signa 1390

For Acute Alveolar Abscess or Periodic Supra-orbital Neuralgia.

Cassidy.

Quiniae sulphatis.................gr.xv

Ft. capsules No. 5. Signa. - Take one every two hours.

Signa 1391