This section is from the book "Dental Medicine. A Manual Of Dental Materia Medica And Therapeutics", by Ferdinand J. S. Gorgas. Also available from Amazon: Dental Medicine.
Cinchona is the bark of the tree cinchona calisava, which grows on the western coast of South America, especially of Bolivia and Southern Peru. Different varieties are named, according to their color, as Cinchona Flava, yellow cinchona; Cinchona Pallida, pale cinchona; Cinchona Rubra, red cinchona. The medical properties of these barks depend upon the alkaloids they contain in varying proportions, Luinina being the most important.
The yellow bark has a much more bitter taste than the others, but is comparatively free from acidity. It is brownish yellow, the powder being of an orange color, and it contains more of the alkaloid quinine than the other barks.
Cinchona is tonic, astringent and antiperiodic, and the different varieties owe their tonic and antiperiodic properties to the alkaloids quinina, cinchonina and cinchonidina. On account of the large quantity of the powdered barks it is necessary to take in order to obtain the full effects, and which cause, in some cases, derangement of the stomach, vomiting, headache and constipation, the alkaloid quinine, in the form of sulphate of quinina, is preferable.
Sulphate of Quinina - Luinines Sulphas - is prepared by boiling the yellow bark in water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, by which the alkaloid is separated from its combination with kinic and other acids, to form a soluble hydrochlorate. This salt is decomposed, and the quinine is precipitated by the addition of lime, and afterwards washed in boiling alcohol.
Sulphate of quinine is in the form of colorless, very light and silky crystals, and is readily soluble in alcohol, and in water acidulated with sulphuric acid. It is insoluble in ether, and requires 740 parts of cold, or 30 parts of boiling water to entirely dissolve it.
Cinchona is also antiseptic, as the powder dusted over unhealthy wounds will arrest putrefaction, and promote healthy cicatrization. Quinina will destroy minute organisms, and preserve substances from decomposition. The cinchona alkaloids are readily diffused into the blood, and when hypodermic-ally injected, are absorbed by the blood. Cinchona and its alkaloids increase the action of the heart slightly, but in large doses quinine depresses the heart's action and enfeebles the pulse. As quinine accumulates in the brain, a sense of fulness in the head, a tightness and constriction about the forehead, a ringing in the ears (tinnitus auriurri), giddiness and vertigo are experienced. Deafness also occurs, as the effect of considerable doses, and, if continued, permanent injury may result. Poisonous doses cause intense headache, dilated pupils, delirium, coma and convulsions.
Peruvian bark and its alkaloids are the most reliable tonics and antiperiodics.
Cinchona, and its alkaloid, quinine, are internally employed in the treatment of intermittent fevers, and also other fevers, such as remittent, typhus, puerperal and scarlet; also in influenza, neuralgias of a malarial origin, acute rheumatism, phthisis, advanced stages of pneumonia and pleurisy, erysipelas, urticaria, diseases of the eve, epilepsy, gangrene and mortification, scurvy, pyemia, malarial dysentery, passive hemorrhages, and as an anthelmintic, etc., etc.
Of powdered cinchona, to given in infusion of liquorice ; of the extract of cinchona, gr. j to gr. x, in pill; of sulphate of quinine, gr. j to
Cinchona and its alkaloid, quinine, are employed in dental practice, in the treatment of neuralgia of the fifth pair of nerves, when due to malaria, in from five to ten grain doses of quinine; in aphthous ulcerations, in one or two grain doses every two or three hours, especially when there is great debility; and in cancrum oris; also in the form of gargles and lotions, in gangrenous ulcerations of the mouth. Cinchona is also employed in the form of powder, as an ingredient of certain dentifrices, for its tonic and antiseptic properties.
Pulv. cinchonae flav. . Pulv. saponis cas. albi
Magnesiae calc. . .
Olei caryophylli . .
Pulv. cinchonas flav. .
Sacchari albi .... Pulv. cinnamomi . . Pulv. saponis cas. albi Pulv. myrrhae ....
For Mercurial Stomatitis.
Dr. Garrettson. Tinct. cinchonae . . . Potassae chloratis .
Alumnis pulv. . . . Potassse permanganatis gr. xxv Aquae coloniae . . . Tinct. myrrhae . . Tinct. capsici . . . Tinct. krameriae . . .
Use as a gargle.
Dentifnce. Pulv. cinchonse flav. . tb.ss
Pulv. myrrhae .... Pulv. radicis iridis
For UIteration of Gums. Pulv. cinchonae . . .
Cupri sulph.....gr. x
Acaciae (pulv.) . . .
Aquae purse .... Signa. - Apply with a camel's-hair brush to ulcerated surface of mucous membrane.
For a Wash after the Extraction of Teeth.
Cinchonae (decoct.) .
Aluminae . . .
Infus. rosae .... Signa. - Use as a gargle.
For Digestive Stimulation in Pyorrhoea
Alveolaris. Dr. Chas. B. Atkinson. Cinchonidinae sulph. . Acid. sulph. arom. . . Alcohol (95 per cent.) Aquae dest, q. s. ad. . Signa. - One teaspoonful ter die.