This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
Potassii Chloras. Potassium Chlorate. Kc103=122.28.
Pass Chlorine into a mixture of Potassium Carbonate and Slaked Lime; then treat the result in boiling water and separate the Chlorate by re-crystallization. K2Co3 + 6Ca(OH), + 6Cl2=2Kc10, + 5CaCl2 + CaCo3+ 6H2O.
Colorless, lustrous monoclinic prisms or plates, or a white powder, odorless and having a cooling, saline taste. Easily explodes on trituration with many substances, especially Sugar, Sulphur, Tannic Acid, Metallic Sulphides, Phosphorus, Charcoal, and Glycerin. Solubility. - In 16.7 parts of water; insoluble in absolute Alcohol.
Calcium chloride and lime.
Dose, 3 to 20 gr.; .20 to 1.20 gm.
Troches of Potassium Chlorate. Potassium Chlorate, 30; Sugar, 120; Tragacanth, 6 gm.; Spirit of
Lemon, 1 c.c.; water, a sufficient quantity to make 100 troches. Mix the Sugar with the Tragacanth and the Spirit of Lemon by trituration in a mortar; then transfer the mixture to a sheet of paper, and, by means of a bone spatula, mix with it the Potassium Chlorate, being careful, by avoiding trituration or pressure, to prevent the mixture from igniting or exploding. Lastly, with water, form a mass. Each troche contains 5 gr.; .30 gm.
Dose, 1 to 6 troches.
Stomach and Intestines. - Small doses have no effect; poisonous ones produce symptoms similar to those induced by the nitrate.
Here also small doses have no effect, but several cases of poisoning show that in large doses potassium chlorate disintegrates the red corpuscles, and converts haemoglobin into methaemoglobin. The altered blood causes the skin to be cyanotic, it is passed by the urine, which is, therefore, dark-colored, and contains granular debris, and thus the urine is exactly like that met with in paroxysmal haemoglobinuria. The liver and spleen are enlarged. There may be jaundice and haematemesis, and the marrow of the bones becomes very vascular. Nephritis is induced, the tubules are blocked by the debris of the blood, and so the urine is scanty. Death occurs from cardiac weakness or uraemia.
As potassium chlorate easily yields up its oxygen, some believe that it gives off part of its oxygen to the tissues while it is circulating in the blood, but much of it is excreted unchanged in the urine and other excretions.
This drug is used empirically for stomatitis, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis of all varieties, either as lozenges, gargle (1 to 50 parts of water or decoction of cinchona), or to be swallowed in solution, for it is then excreted by the saliva. Its action is therefore always local, as it is beneficial by virtue of the nascent oxygen given off from it. It is especially valuable for ulcerative stomatitis. It has been given to women liable to miscarry.
11. Potassii Permanganas, see Manganese.
12. Potassii Et Sodii Tartras, see Sodium.
13. Potassii Iodidum, see Iodine.
14. Potassii Bromidum, see Bromine.
15. Potassa Sulphurata, see Sulphur.